- translating into TL: before starting the actual work of translating, the
translator should i choose an appropriate approach or method, which shall be discussed later, based on the analysis of the ST and his purpose of doing
the translation, and ii work on possible translation strategies; -
revising andor reconstructing the translation.
220.127.116.11. Translation methods
There are various translation methods or approaches, which can be seen in Newmark’s diagram as follows:
SL emphasis TL emphasis
Word-for-word translation Adaptation
Literal translation Free translation
Faithful translation Idiomatic translation Semantic translation Communicative translation
Newmark, 1988: 45 Newmark briefly explained these methods as:
- Word-for-word translation: The SL word-order is preserved and words
translated singly by their most common meaning, out of context.
- Literal translation: The SL grammatical constructions are converted to
their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical words are translated singly, out of context.
- Faithful translation: attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning
of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
- Semantic translation: takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL
text than does faithful translation, compromising on ‘meaning’ where appropriate so that assonance, word-lay or repetition jars in the finished version. Therefore, it is
more flexible, allows for the translator’s intuitive empathy with the original.
- Adaptation: In adaptation, the themes, characters, plots are preserved, and
the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
- Free translation: is usually a paraphrase much longer than the original, a
so-called ‘intralingual translation’, often prolix and pretentious, and not translation at all.
- Idiomatic translation: reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to
distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
- Communicative translation: attempts to render the exact contextual
meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.
Newmark, 1988: 45-7 Of the above eight methods, only semantic and communicative translation are
considered by Newmark to fulfill the two main aims of translation, namely accuracy and economy. In other works on translation theory, these two methods are also most
frequently discussed. In concluding the chapter on translation methods in A Textbook of Translation,
Newmark goes on to clarify five more translation methods: 1 Service translation: is translation from one’s language of habitual use into
another language. 2 Plain prose translation: this is translation of poems and poetic drama.
Usually stanzas become paragraphs, prose punctuation is introduced, original metaphors and SL culture retained, no sound-effects are
reproduced. 3 Information translation: This conveys all the information in a non-literary
text, sometimes rearranged in a more logical form, sometimes partially summarized, and not in the form of a paraphrase.
4 Cognitive translation: This reproduces the information in a SL text converting the SL grammar to its normal TL transpositions, normally
reducing any figurative to literal language.
5 Academic translation: This reduces an original SL text to an ‘elegant’ idiomatic educated TL version which follows a literary register. It irons out
the expressiveness of a writer with modish colloquialisms. Newmark, 1988: 52-3
The chosen translation method will help the selection and use of appropriate translation strategies, which are going to be discussed in the next part.
18.104.22.168. Translation strategies