5 Academic translation: This reduces an original SL text to an ‘elegant’ idiomatic educated TL version which follows a literary register. It irons out
the expressiveness of a writer with modish colloquialisms. Newmark, 1988: 52-3
The chosen translation method will help the selection and use of appropriate translation strategies, which are going to be discussed in the next part.
184.108.40.206. Translation strategies
After a translation method has been selected, the actual work of translating can now take place. To achieve the goal of transferring the text from the SL into the TL,
the translator will have to combine several of the following translation strategies, elsewhere referred to as translation procedures.
1. Transcription ‘loan words’, adoption, transfer 2. One-to-one translation
3. Through-translation ‘loan-translation’ or calque: is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations, the components of compounds.
4. Lexical synonymy: this is translation by a close TL equivalent, used for a SL word where there is no clear one-to-one equivalent.
5. Componential analysis: this is preferred to synonymy particularly if the lexical unit is a key-word or is important in the context.
6. Transposition Vinay and Darbelnet or shift Catford: is the replacement of one grammatical unit by another without changing the sense. It is probably the most
common structural change undertaken by translators. 7. Modulation: is “a variation through a change of viewpoint, of perspective and
very often of category of thought” Vinay and Darbelnet. This is considered the touchstone of a good translator.
8. Compensation: when loss of meaning or sound effect or metaphor in one part of sentence is compensated in another part.
9. Cultural equivalence: is an approximate translation where a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural word.
10. Translation label: that is an approximate equivalent, sometimes proposed as a collocation in inverted commas, which may later be accepted.
11. Definition descriptive equivalent: usually recast as a descriptive noun-phrase or adjectival clause.
12. Paraphrase: an amplification or free rendering of the meaning of a sentence: the translator’s last resort.
13. Expansion: grammatical expansion 14. Contraction: grammatical reduction
15. Recasting sentences: splitting of one sentence in the SL into two or more sentences in the TL or grouping several sentences in the SL into one sentence in
the TL. 16. Rearrangement, improvements jargon, mistakes, misprints, idiolect, clumsy
writing, etc.. Only justified if a the SL text is concerned mainly with facts, or b the writing is defective.
17. Translation couplet: literal translation or translation label plus transcription The choice of strategies for the translation of a text depends on the purpose of
the translation and the componential analysis of the ST.
1.2.3. Translation equivalence and assessment