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Jakobson 1959: linguistic meaning and equivalence Nida 1964: formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence Newmark 1981 1988: semantic translation and communicative translation

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1.2.3.1. Jakobson 1959: linguistic meaning and equivalence


Jakobson sees translation as three separate kinds: intralingual, interlingual and intersemiotic, with the second kind corresponding to others’ definition of translation.
In terms of linguistic meaning, Jakobson takes up Saussure’s view that the linguistic sign, which composes of the signifier the spoken and the written signal
and the signified the concept signified, is arbitrary or unmotivated. In terms of equivalence in meaning, he holds that ‘there is ordinarily no full
equivalence between code-units’ 19592000: 114. Therefore, it should not be expected that the code-units in ST and TT are similar, even when the message is
‘equivalent’ in ST and TT.

1.2.3.2. Nida 1964: formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence


- Formal equivalence: the message in the TL should be conveyed by
elements that are as closely matching as possible with those in the SL. -
Dynamic equivalence: the message should produce an effect on TL receptors equivalent to that on ST receptors.
A translation, in Nida’s opinion, is successful if it can achieve equivalent response in the two languages, which means dynamic equivalence is the goal of translation. To be
‘good’, a translation must meet these four basic requirements: -
making sense -
conveying the spirit and manner of the original -
having a natural and easy form of expression -
producing a similar response

1.2.3.3. Newmark 1981 1988: semantic translation and communicative translation


Although he shares similar ideas of translation equivalence with Nida, Newmark uses ‘semantic translation’ and ‘communicative translation’ for ‘formal
equivalence’ and ‘dynamic equivalence’ respectively. Communicative translation aims at producing “the same effect or one as close as possible on the readership of
the translation as was obtained on the readership of the original”. Semantic
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translation, on the other hand, attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original.

1.2.3.4. Koller 1979: five types of equivalence


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