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7 Managing Money, Assets, and Time

7 Managing Money, Assets, and Time

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Developer Tip

There are several

different ways to

get a wiki on your

studio server. You can get

the free download from

Open Wiki (http://www.

openwiki.com) or use any

of the commercially

available wiki versions. The

free version is perfectly fine

and uses a simple

language for updated the

site, but if you want good

tech support, consider a

reasonably priced

commercial version of the


a daily email that lists all tasks finished that day, then a producer

(or whoever has been assigned to handle this particular task)

compiles the list into a department-by-department spreadsheet

to turn in to the studio heads. This is an easy way to stay on top of

what the team is getting done without taking up too much of your

day to do it. Just keep in mind that the time the team is spending

on reports is time they are not working on the game!

8.8 Postproduction

In addition to the challenges and complications that arise during preproduction and production of a film, it is also typically the

job of the executive producer to find distribution for the finished

movie. Although this is not usually a problem in the game

industry—you most likely will not have gone into full-blown

development without a deal in place—there’s no denying that

producers are often the ones pitching a game to the publisher

and attempting to make the sell. But again, this is usually done

before any production is done on the game.

During postproduction in the game industry, the game producer is usually more involved with making sure that localization

is on point and working with the publisher to handle the various

marketing duties involved with a new release. This includes the

ad campaign, print campaign, getting media coverage, and

attending conferences to promote the title. Hopefully, during

production you will have created a great, cinematic trailer to promote with. Now is the time to unveil it and promote your game.

Games like Pandemic Studios’ Saboteur make huge impacts at conferences prior to the

game’s release. Reproduced by permission of Pandemic Studios. All rights reserved.

Chapter 8 PRODUCER

Film producers have been promoting at film festivals for many

years and have learned hard lessons there. Using these lessons, a

basic set of rules for success at a game conference is the


1. Take quality assets. Make sure that you have great screenshots, press kits, trailers, and demos for the conference—

and make sure people see them.

2. Bring swag. Nothing draws people to your booth/area

more than having free stuff to give them. Keep in mind that

things you give away with the game’s logo on it will go a

long way towards putting free advertisement on the


3. Go to the parties. Nothing makes a better presence or gets

you farther than glad-handing at the parties. Schmoozing

with media and making the game’s presence known at the

fun events gets you great press.

4. Do some guerilla marketing. Get posters up all over the

place, get flyers into the goodie bags, and put postcards in

the hands of everyone possible. It all adds up to making a

big impression on the public.

5. Try to speak at the conference. Another way to get to a lot of

people is to get a speaking gig there. Sometimes it’s as easy

as contacting the conference (just do it far in advance

when they are still planning it).

Doing well at conferences is one of the “soft skills” that producers should all have inherently—and if they don’t, they should be

developing these skills, which go a long way when working with

your public relations department.

Interview: Bob Sabiston, Founder of Flat Black


Bob Sabiston grew up in North Carolina and received his

bachelors and masters degrees from the MIT Media Lab. He

owns an animation company, Flat Black Films, headquartered

in Austin, Texas, since 1993. He and his team of freelance animators produce some of the most eye-popping animation around.

In addition to being the creative director of the company,

Bob writes the software for all of their animated films. Their

work includes the recent movies Waking Life, A Scanner Darkly,

and The Five Obstructions. Also, Flat Black Films’ own short

films have been winning awards and breaking new ground

in computer animation since 1988. These include RoadHead

(1998), Snack and Drink (1999), Beat Dedication (1988), Grinning

Evil Death (1991), and most recently, The Even More Fun Trip


Bob Sabiston




Newman: Your studio, Flat Black Films, usually has a team of animators/artists working on a project. How do you manage a group

of individuals to stay within the artistic vision of the project?

Describe the workflow in your studio.

Sabiston: Well, I try to manage the “artistic vision” of a project so

that it can comfortably grow out of the collaboration between a

group of good artists. I think that ultimately, what looks good is a

good artist doing their work with the minimal interference possible. There is an expectation out there that something needs to

look the same to hold together or appear cohesive. Really, I think

it is just a matter of selectively using each person’s very different

styles. The vision is attained just by working daily with the same

smallish group of people; it grows organically from that I think.

Newman: One of the challenges of working in the game industry

is staying up on technology. Though game artists have laid the

foundation for standardization within their field by using the

same basic programs, programmers have yet to do so. What have

been some of the challenges you have faced in the film industry

with coping with technology?

Sabiston: We use our own software, which has a whole set of challenges all its own. But I face a similar problem simply with the

release of new versions of the OS for the computers we use. For

example, Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard) broke my program. Now I have

to go back into all that code, which I haven’t worked on in a while,

and figure out why. The transition from OS 9 to OS X was horrible

too, but worth it of course. But it’s sobering to think that I will

have to keep my program alive, essentially, as time marches forth,

by staying on top of changing API programming. Also, we move

to HD and all of a sudden everything’s getting bigger, which

affects everyone in terms of needing more disk space, faster computers. But for us animators, drawing on these 1920 ϫ 1080

screens, the temptation is now there to dive into an even greater

level of detail. It’s good, but it’s bad, possibly akin to wanting to

hear a vinyl album over a CD or mp3.

Newman: When you were working on the films Waking Life and A

Scanner Darkly, you were in a position to collaborate with director Richard Linklater concerning the look of the films. More so

than any other films, these films are closely related to games in

that they are “real” but animated. Describe the artistic process of

interpreting a director’s vision and keeping the film cinematic

rather than cartoon-like.

Sabiston: Well, our specific type of animation is “rotoscoping”,

which already has the benefit of being traced over live action, if

you’re looking for cinematic over cartoonish. But I think with

Waking Life and A Scanner Darkly, I think we both had the same

Chapter 8 PRODUCER

general idea of the look for each film. We were on the same page

there, which helps. As far as process, regular meetings and

reviews of artwork again just kind of naturally lead to a shared

understanding for the look of something. Scanner was much

more detailed, and was kind of the opposite of Waking Life, in

that it maintained this single, consistent, very detailed style the

whole way though the movie. Ultimately, I had little to do with

how they ended up seeing that through. I think Rick, as well as

the studio, panicked when they realized what an actually huge

task that would be when compared to Waking Life.

Newman: Your particular brand of animation is unique in that

you begin with living actors, then rotoscope over the top of the

image. This is not unlike the use of motion capture in the game

industry, then animating over the movements of the real actors.

Have you found any particular methodology for directing actors

that seems to translate the best into your projects?

Sabiston: Most of what I’ve directed, when we animate, has been

documentary. So I’m just recording people being themselves and

then picking that over for good moments. Although I agree that

the rotoscoping process has much in common with motion capture, there’s the hand-drawn aspect to rotoscoping. The artist

does give the animation an emotion, an expressiveness, and individuality that motion capture doesn’t really have. I think they

both have good uses. The film Beowulf, for example, seemed like

a pretty good use for the motion capture, whereas Waking Life

wouldn’t be too good done that way. Video games: it would be

interesting to see one that really made good use of rotoscoping’s

advantages. I don’t think it would be your typical game.

Newman: When translating emotion into a project, color and

light can play a big part in establishing a desired mood. This can

be particularly difficult when dealing with animation. What is

your philosophy regarding the incorporation of light and color?

Sabiston: Because of the tracing aspect to our animation, we pick

up most of our light effects from the video source. So in those

instances, you’d just be facing the same lighting and color choices

as a live-action filmmaker, with the exception that you know you

have this second opportunity, during the animation, of changing

things. On the other hand, you can also ignore all the video color

and lighting and just do your own thing. I think then it comes

down to your personal tastes, visual aesthetic, as a visual artist.

Newman: Often, game developers are at the mercy of their publishers for budget, major artistic and technical choices, and the

marketing of the final project. When preparing a project for a client such as Linklater or Charles Schwab, what best practices do




you recommend for keeping good communications and creating

the desired product for the client?

Sabiston: Hm. It depends on the client, I guess. Some clients you

work with closely and want to get as much of your own vision in

there as well, because you truly care about the film, the subject

matter, whatever. On the other hand, if your own ideas clash with

theirs or they want to make all of the decisions, then they are the

boss in my opinion. That’s kind of what you have to accept with

the money you get for working for someone else. I’ve learned on

Schwab not to get too emotionally involved when your own artistic interests aren’t at stake. It isn’t worth the anguish if you don’t

get your way, and it is good practice I think to try to control your

ego in that way, to really subscribe to the saying “The customer is

always right.” It can be annoying, though!

Newman: What advice do you have for young digital artists?

Sabiston: Really figure out just what it is that you enjoy, specifically, about the field you’re in. And do that as much as you can.

Part of getting out of school and going to work is the dreaded

realization that no matter what you do, you are probably going to

be stuck somewhere, doing something, for most of your days. If

you can find something you enjoy enough to sit there and do it all

day, every day, you are bound to get good at it.



Casting a key piece of talent on a film project may be the thing

that makes or breaks a movie production, but on a game production, this is rarely the case. Most game developers consider key

game designers, engineers, or artists to be the talent that is highly

desirable—and this is the talent that money is spent on. The only

true casting that is done during the production of a video game

usually centers around the voiceover work that will be done

(recording the dialogue for the game’s characters) and the actors

that will be used during motion capture sessions.

New games, however, like UbiSoft’s Far Cry 2 have taken

motion capture to the next stage by incorporating photorealistic

action and movement to create an extremely lifelike cast of characters within the game. Motion capture has even been incorporated to record great detail on actors’ faces to bring a new level of

emotion and human reaction into a game.

Great motion capture techniques were used while producing UbiSoft’s Far Cry series.

Reproduced by permission of UbiSoft. All rights reserved.




Taking the time for proper casting can make a huge difference

in the production value of a game. I’ve seen video game companies actually mine the production team for people to perform the

voiceover work for characters within a game—this can usually be

spotted pretty quickly when playing a game by the dialogue that

is lackluster and emotionless. Imagine if a film production company approached a project in this manner! It would be unthinkable to cast a production assistant in a key voiceover role on a

movie or send him or her in front of the camera without acting

experience. Using experienced voiceover actors during production is a must for developing a true cinematic game and increases

your production value immensely.

Thinking about possible candidates for casting can begin as

early in development as preproduction. Although it would be helpful to have the voiceover script finalized before casting actors, it

isn’t necessary, as long as you know the gist of what each character

will say and do, or what the individual characters’ traits are (these

can be recorded on character breakdown sheets). Just keep in mind

(and let actors know) that games can take years to develop and you

won’t want to record the voiceover too early, as it may change.

9.1 Casting for Voiceover

Finding the right voice talent can be as simple as matching a

voice to a character’s face or hiring an experienced voice actor

who can bring the level of emotion you want into the game.

Either way, knowing how to deal with voice actors is key to getting

the dialogue you want for the game. There are several things to

focus on while casting/working with a voice actor:

1. Match the qualities of an actor’s voice with the qualities of

the game character. This means listening closely to how the

actor speaks. Does he or she stutter? Is the actor easily

excitable? Is there a predominant characteristic to the

actor’s voice? Remember that most actors can actually take

direction (see Chapter 10, Directing), so give an actor the

chance to produce the style of voice you want for your

characters. As you will probably be casting for multiple

roles within the game, it’s best to do all the casting at once.

That way, if an actor does not fit a specific role, you can

allow him or her to read for other available characters

within the game. Also, remember that actors can play multiple parts within a game.

2. Make sure the actors can take direction. If you followed the

advice of the first guideline, this is the case. But, in case you

haven’t, run the actor through a series of different emotional

types and levels—such as, “Let’s try it with you being angry.

Chapter 9 CASTING


Okay, very angry. Now try reading this while barely controlling your excitement.” Getting an actor to perform in the

manner you desire can take patience and a lot of explaining,

so an actor who can respond to direction and understand

what you want will save you time, money, and aggravation.

3. Try to get experienced actors. Although this is the most easily disregarded guideline (especially if you have an amateur that perfectly fits a role), the more experienced an

actor is, the easier you will get what you want in the least

amount of time. Experienced actors are used to “cold reading” for auditions and are quick to adjust to changes in a

script. These qualities help when recording in the studio

with a limited amount of time and money. Trained actors

also know how to take direction with little or no fuss.

4. Pay attention to special casting needs. Some roles require a

specific kind of actor—especially comedy. Comedic timing

is something only a small percentage of actors are good at. If

you want the dialogue in the game to be convincing, you will

need actors that can convince. Other special casting needs

also include nontypical actors, such as old men/women,

children, or individuals fluent in a foreign language.

Actor Michael Ironside is the

voice of Splinter Cell’s Sam Fisher.

Reproduced by permission of

UbiSoft. All rights reserved.

Also keep in mind that during casting calls, you do not have to

make a decision right then and there. The best approach is to

have one-page scripts (sometimes called “sides”) of game dialogue for several characters on hand and then have the actors

read directly into a microphone. Record all of the sessions and

then review the various voices once you’re away from the actors

before making any final decisions. Remember, you can always

call back any actors that you think warrant further investigation,

or if you think they would fit a role that they did not read for.



Because you are casting your actors just for their voice and

style, it will only be necessary to record audio for voiceover casting sessions. When casting for motion capture work, however, the

casting session will run a bit differently.

9.2 Casting for Motion Capture

Development Tip

To get an idea of

how quality motion

capture/performance capture work is done,

check out the extra features

on Robert Zemeckis’ film

Beowulf. There’s a detailed

behind-the-scenes featurette

concerning the use of

motion capture in the


The newest Resident Evil game

gets a lot of mileage out of

top-notch character motion.

Reproduced by permission of

Capcom U.S.A., Inc. All rights


The best approach for tackling a motion capture casting session is to think of it as casting for a silent movie. Pay attention to

the body composition of the actors and how they match up with

the game characters. You will want the actors’ movements to be

as close as possible to their game counterparts, so you will want

them to have roughly the same build as the game character they

are portraying. Sometimes called “performance capture” in the

movie industry, motion capture is the process of capturing animation data from an actor who has been wired with equipment

that monitors the actor’s movements. This information is then

used in conjunction with 3D modeling programs to create the

finished character.

Though all games do not use this procedure, the advantages of

using motion capture (mocap) are obvious. Information is gathered much quicker with the use of mocap, characters are digitized

so that they can be seamlessly integrated into digital environments, and as you will not be using any practical effects (lighting,

camera movement, and so on), you have the freedom to try out

many different looks and strategies for the characters during production. Mocap is a unique technique and requires specific kinds

of equipment, so you will probably do the work in a studio that

specializes in this. However, you can do all the casting for the

mocap work practically anywhere.

Chapter 9 CASTING


Before starting the casting session, make sure that the actors

have access to the character breakdowns for the game. Character

breakdown sheets basically describe the character and their role

within the game. Knowing the specific characteristics of the characters before casting allows the actors to perform more accurately. For instance, if an actor is reading for a special operations

commando, he or she will move with more agility, stealth, and

precision, where an actor who is trying out for a clumsy sidekick

might be a bit more awkward. Once actors understand who they

are playing, run them through a series of movements. It’s best to

actually have a team member who has worked with motion capture on hand to help evaluate the actors (probably a lead artist

and animator).

Remember, as you give the actor new motions to try, try to use

the specific actions that the character will be performing within

the game. Ideally, before the mocap casting session is even scheduled, a list of various movements should be detailed and made

available for the auditions.

9.3 Using Celebrities

Adding a celebrity actor to the mix when recording voiceover

can be a substantial plus when producing your game. Besides

adding a new dimension of appeal to the gamer, experienced and

known talent can bring a level of professionalism to the production that you would not have with an amateur on hand. Having a

celebrity involved with production is also quite popular with the

public relations/marketing department! Getting a celebrity can

be as easy as contacting the actor’s agent, but be aware of the

possible negative aspects that are involved with dealing with

“name talent”.

Because an actor is a recognizable name in most households

does not mean that they are experienced with voiceover work.

This is doubly challenging when the actor does not like to take

direction. Big-time celebrities typically do not like being told how

to perform. Make sure that any celebrity you cast for the production will be fine with working with a team and taking cues from

you. Another thing to keep in mind when casting celebrities is the

big price tag that usually accompanies them. The later games in

the Wing Commander series featured filmed cut-scenes with

actors like Mark Hamill, Malcolm McDowell, and John RhysDavies—and the cost associated with these actors exceeded the

budget for the programming team!

Finally, as you will be using the actor’s name to an extent with

selling your game, mete out the details regarding localizing that

Production Tip

IMDb.com hosts an

online database of

all actors and lists

contact information for

them. At http://www.imdb.

com, get the information

for the actor’s manager or

agent, then contact them to

solicit that person for




actor’s voice into other languages. Will the actor want to do it?

Sometimes, they will already have an actor in place for foreign

versions of their dialogue, and they may carry a hefty price tag

as well.

Though the character Master

Chief of Halo fame does not have

a celebrity voice, good casting

ensured that he has a good voice.

Copyright © Bungie LLC and/or its

suppliers. All rights reserved.

9.4 Finding Talent

There are several different methods to use when trying to find

talent—it may be in your best interest to consider more than just

one if you are unsure of any specific actors that may fit your production. The most widely used methods for getting to actors

involve hosting casting calls, hiring a casting director, and using

online casting sites.

Setting up a casting call can be a tricky thing. How many people do you want to actually read for the parts? Going overboard

with putting out the word (using newspapers, magazines, sites,

and so on) can quickly turn your casting call into a “cattle call”—

actors’ slang for a casting call with hundreds of people reading for

the same part. Getting through that many actors all reading the

same lines can be tedious, take up a lot of your time, and create

frustration with the actors who are auditioning (imagine waiting

in a long line for hours to read for a couple minutes—and be at

your best when you do it). Using a focused casting call in perhaps

a couple trade magazines may be the best way to approach this

type of casting. An even smarter approach is to use a local, experienced casting director.

Casting directors are individuals who specialize in knowing

local talent for a specific area. They are versed in local talent

agencies and usually already have a pool of talent in place that

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