Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
B. Evaluation of Postsynaptic Activity in the Somatosensory cortex

B. Evaluation of Postsynaptic Activity in the Somatosensory cortex

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

1521_book.fm Page 224 Tuesday, April 5, 2005 12:20 PM

116. Pleger B, Dinse HR, Ragert P, Schwenkreis P, Malin JP, Tegenthoff M (2001) Shifts

in cortical representations predict human discrimination improvement. Proc Natl Acad

Sci U S A 98: 12255-12260

117. Plewnia C, Bartels M, Gerloff C (2003a) Transient suppression of tinnitus by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ann Neurol 53: 263-266

118. Plewnia C, Lotze M, Gerloff C (2003b) Disinhibition of the contralateral motor cortex

by low-frequency rTMS. Neuroreport 14: 609-612

119. Porter LL (1991) Patterns of connectivity in the cat sensory-motor cortex: a light and

electron microscope analysis of the projection arising from area 3a. J Comp Neurol

312: 404-414

120. Porter LL (1992) Patterns of projections from area 2 of the sensory cortex to area 3a

and to the motor cortex in cats. Exp Brain Res 91: 85-93

121. Priori A, Berardelli A, Rona S, Accornero N, Manfredi M (1998) Polarization of the

human motor cortex through the scalp. Neuroreport 9: 2257-2260

122. Ragert P, Dinse HR, Pleger B, Wilimzig C, Frombach E, Schwenkreis P, Tegenthoff

M (2003) Combination of 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

and tactile coactivation boosts tactile discrimination in humans. Neurosci Lett 348:


123. Rauschecker JP (1999) Auditory cortical plasticity: a comparison with other sensory

systems. Trends Neurosci 22: 74-80

124. Recanzone GH, Allard TT, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM (1990) Receptive-field

changes induced by peripheral nerve stimulation in SI of adult cats. J Neurophysiol

63: 1213-1225

125. Reding MJ, Potes E (1988) Rehabilitation outcome following initial unilateral hemispheric stroke. Life table analysis approach. Stroke 19: 1354-1358

126. Rittenhouse CD, Shouval HZ, Paradiso MA, Bear MF (1999) Monocular deprivation

induces homosynaptic long-term depression in visual cortex. Nature 397: 347-350

127. Roricht S, Meyer BU, Niehaus L, Brandt SA (1999) Long-term reorganization of

motor cortex outputs after arm amputation. Neurology 53: 106-111

128. Rosen I, Asanuma H (1972) Peripheral afferent inputs to the forelimb area of the

monkey motor cortex: input-output relations. Exp Brain Res 14: 257-273

129. Rothwell JC, Traub MM, Day BL, Obeso JA, Thomas PK, Marsden CD (1982)

Manual motor performance in a deafferented man. Brain 105 (Pt 3): 515-542

130. Rouiller EM, Babalian A, Kazennikov O, Moret V, Yu XH, Wiesendanger M (1994)

Transcallosal connections of the distal forelimb representations of the primary and

supplementary motor cortical areas in macaque monkeys. Exp Brain Res 102: 227-243

131. Sadato N, Zeffiro TA, Campbell G, Konishi J, Shibasaki H, Hallett M (1995) Regional

cerebral blood flow changes in motor cortical areas after transient anesthesia of the

forearm. Ann. Neurol. 37: 74-81

132. Sakamoto T, Porter LL, Asanuma H (1987) Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic

potentials in the motor cortex produced by stimulation of the sensory cortex in the

cat: a basis of motor learning. Brain Res 413: 360-364

133. Salerno A, Georgesco M (1996) Interhemispheric facilitation and inhibition studied

in man with double magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 101:


134. Sanes JN, Donoghue JP (2000) Plasticity and primary motor cortex. Annu Rev

Neurosci 23: 393-415

135. Sawaki L, Wu CW, Cohen LG (2004) Enhancement of use-dependent plasticity by

peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with chronic stroke. In: 5th World Stroke

Congress, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, June 23-26, 2004

© 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group.

1521_book.fm Page 225 Tuesday, April 5, 2005 12:20 PM

136. Schambra HM, Sawaki L, Cohen LG (2003) Modulation of excitability of human

motor cortex (M1) by 1 Hz transcranial magnetic stimulation of the contralateral M1.

Clin Neurophysiol 114: 130-133

137. Schnitzler A, Kessler KR, Benecke R (1996) Transcallosally mediated inhibition of

interneurons within human primary motor cortex. Exp Brain Res 112: 381-391

138. Schwark HD, Esteky H, Jones EG (1992) Corticocortical connections of cat primary

somatosensory cortex. Exp Brain Res 91: 425-434

139. Shibata T, Shimoyama I, Ito T, Abla D, Iwasa H, Koseki K, Yamanouchi N, Sato T,

Nakajima Y (1997) The time course of interhemispheric EEG coherence during a

GO/NO-GO task in humans. Neurosci Lett 233: 117-120

140. 140. Shin HC, Won CK, Jung SC, Oh S, Park S, Sohn JH (1997) Interhemispheric

modulation of sensory transmission in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats.

Neurosci Lett 230: 137-139

141. Sica RE, Sanz OP, Cohen LG, Freyre JD, Panizza M (1984) Changes in the N1-P1

component of the somatosensory cortical evoked response in patients with partial

limb amputation. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 24: 415-427

142. Siebner HR, Filipovic SR, Rowe JB, Cordivari C, Gerschlager W, Rothwell JC,

Frackowiak RS, Bhatia KP (2003) Patients with focal arm dystonia have increased

sensitivity to slow-frequency repetitive TMS of the dorsal premotor cortex. Brain

126: 2710-2725

143. Siebner HR, Mentschel C, Auer C, Conrad B (1999) Repetitive transcranial magnetic

stimulation has a beneficial effect on bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. Neuroreport

10: 589-594

144. Siebner HR, Peller M, Willoch F, Minoshima S, Boecker H, Auer C, Drzezga A,

Conrad B, Bartenstein P (2000) Lasting cortical activation after repetitive TMS of

the motor cortex: a glucose metabolic study. Neurology 54: 956-963

145. Siebner HR, Rothwell J (2003) Transcranial magnetic stimulation: new insights into

representational cortical plasticity. Exp Brain Res 148: 1-16

146. Spaulding SJ, McPherson JJ, Strachota E, Kuphal M, Ramponi M (1988) Jebsen

Hand Function Test: performance of the uninvolved hand in hemiplegia and of righthanded, right and left hemiplegic persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 69: 419-422

147. Stefan K, Kunesch E, Benecke R, Cohen LG, Classen J (2002) Mechanisms of

enhancement of human motor cortex excitability induced by interventional paired

associative stimulation. J Physiol 543: 699-708

148. Stefan K, Kunesch E, Cohen LG, Benecke R, Classen J (2000) Induction of plasticity

in the human motor cortex by paired associative stimulation. Brain 123 Pt 3: 572-584

149. Stepniewska I, Preuss TM, Kaas JH (1993) Architectonics, somatotopic organization,

and ipsilateral cortical connections of the primary motor area (M1) of owl monkeys.

J Comp Neurol 330: 238-271

150. Struppler A, Havel P, Muller-Barna P (2003) Facilitation of skilled finger movements

by repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS) — a new approach in central

paresis. NeuroRehabilitation 18: 69-82

151. Taub E, Morris DM (2001) Constraint-induced movement therapy to enhance recovery after stroke. Curr Atheroscler Rep 3: 279-286

152. Taub E, Ramey SL, DeLuca S, Echols K (2004) Efficacy of constraint-induced

movement therapy for children with cerebral palsy with asymmetric motor impairment. Pediatrics 113: 305-312

153. Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris DM (2003) Improved motor recovery after stroke and

massive cortical reorganization following Constraint-Induced Movement therapy.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 14: S77-91, ix

© 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group.

1521_book.fm Page 226 Tuesday, April 5, 2005 12:20 PM

154. Taub E, Uswatte G, Pidikiti R (1999) Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: a new

family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation — a clinical

review. J Rehabil Res Dev 36: 237-251

155. Teskey GC, Flynn C, Goertzen CD, Monfils MH, Young NA (2003) Cortical stimulation improves skilled forelimb use following a focal ischemic infarct in the rat.

Neurol Res 25: 794-800

156. Teskey GC, Monfils MH, VandenBerg PM, Kleim JA (2002) Motor map expansion

following repeated cortical and limbic seizures is related to synaptic potentiation.

Cereb Cortex 12: 98-105

157. Topka H, Cohen LG, Cole RA, Hallett M (1991) Reorganization of corticospinal

pathways following spinal cord injury. Neurology 41: 1276-1283

158. Tsubokawa T, Katayama Y, Yamamoto T, Hirayama T, Koyama S (1993) Chronic

motor cortex stimulation in patients with thalamic pain. J Neurosurg 78: 393-401

159. Uy J, Ridding MC, Hillier S, Thompson PD, Miles TS (2003) Does induction of

plastic change in motor cortex improve leg function after stroke? Neurology 61: 982984

160. VandenBerg PM, Hogg TM, Kleim JA, Whishaw IQ (2002) Long-Evans rats have a

larger cortical topographic representation of movement than Fischer-344 rats: a microstimulation study of motor cortex in naive and skilled reaching-trained rats. Brain

Res Bull 59: 197-203

161. Werhahn KJ, Mortensen J, Kaelin-Lang A, Boroojerdi B, Cohen LG (2002a) Cortical

excitability changes induced by deafferentation of the contralateral hemisphere. Brain

125: 1402-1413

162. Werhahn KJ, Mortensen J, Van Boven RW, Zeuner KE, Cohen LG (2002b) Enhanced

tactile spatial acuity and cortical processing during acute hand deafferentation. Nat

Neurosci 5: 936-938

163. Wiesel TN, Hubel DH (1963) Single cell responses in striate cortex of kittens deprived

of vision in one eye. J. Neurophysiol. 26: 1003-1017

164. Wiesel TN, Hubel DH (1965) Comparison of the effects of unilateral and bilateral

eye closure on cortical unit responses in kittens. J Neurophysiol 28: 1029-1040

165. Wittenberg GF, Chen R, Ishii K, Bushara KO, Eckloff S, Croarkin E, Taub E, Gerber

LH, Hallett M, Cohen LG (2003) Constraint-induced therapy in stroke: magneticstimulation motor maps and cerebral activation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 17: 48-57

166. Ziemann U, Corwell B, Cohen LG (1998a) Modulation of plasticity in human motor

cortex after forearm ischemic nerve block. J Neurosci 18: 1115-1123

167. Ziemann U, Hallett M, Cohen LG (1998b) Mechanisms of deafferentation-induced

plasticity in human motor cortex. J Neurosci 18: 7000-7007

168. Ziemann U, Muellbacher W, Hallett M, Cohen LG (2001) Modulation of practicedependent plasticity in human motor cortex. Brain 124: 1171-1181.

169. Ziemann U, Wittenberg GF, Cohen LG (2002) Stimulation-induced within-representation and across-representation plasticity in human motor cortex. J Neurosci 22:


© 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group.

1521_book.fm Page 227 Tuesday, April 5, 2005 12:20 PM


Behavioral Basis of Focal

Hand Dystonia:

Aberrant Learning in the

Somatosensory Cortex

Nancy N. Byl


I. Abstract

II. Introduction

A. Focal Hand Dystonia (FHd)

B. The Evidence for Aberrant Learning

C. Primate Studies

D. Rodent Animal Models

E. Summary of Animal Studies

F. Human Research Models

1. Experiment I: Relationship of Clinical Performance

and Neural Structure

2. Experiment II: Intervention (12 Subjects)

3. Experiment III: Three Case Studies

III. Summary of Intervention Strategies



Focal hand dystonia (FHd) is a disabling movement disorder of unknown etiology

that can develop in productive, motivated individuals who perform highly repetitive,

intensive hand tasks. This chapter summarizes our research supporting aberrant

learning as one origin of FHd. Our studies document degradation of the somatosensory representation of the hand in animals and patients with dystonic hand movements as characterized by large receptive fields (rfs), overlapped across adjacent

digits and glabrous-dorsal surfaces, persistence of digital receptive fields across

broad cortical distances, high ratio of amplitude to latency in somatosensory evoked

field responses, and decreased spread and abnormal sequencing of digit representa-


© 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

B. Evaluation of Postsynaptic Activity in the Somatosensory cortex

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)