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Table 18-2. Members That Return Objects

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Let us discuss some of the members in Table 18-1.

Activate method

This method activates the worksheet, as in:


AutoFilterMode property

This property is True if the AutoFilter drop-down arrows are currently displayed on the

worksheet. (Also see the FilterMode property, discussed later in this section). Note that

we can set this property to False to remove the arrows, but we cannot set it to True. To

display the AutoFilter arrows, we use the AutoFilter method, which is discussed in

Chapter 19.

Calculate method

This method calculates all cells in the worksheet. (Note that the method applies to

workbooks and specific ranges as well.) The syntax is simply:


CodeName property

This property returns the code name for the worksheet (it also applies to workbook and

chart objects). The code name can be used in place of any expression that returns the

worksheet. The code name can also be set in the Properties window. It is referred to as

(name) to distinguish it from the Name property.

To illustrate, suppose that we have a worksheet whose code name is SheetCodeName and

whose name is SheetName. Then the following are equivalent:



Note that when we first create a worksheet, the name and code name are the same. The

two names can then be changed independently. However, the code name can be changed

only at design time; it cannot be changed with code at run time.

Copy method

The Copy method has multiple syntaxes. To copy a worksheet, we use the syntax:

WorksheetObject.Copy(Before, After)

where the optional Before parameter is the sheet before which the copied sheet will be

placed and the After parameter is the sheet after which the copied sheet will be placed.

(Only one of Before or After is allowed at one time.)


Note that if neither Before nor After is specified, Excel will copy the worksheet to a

new workbook.

To illustrate, the following code copies the active worksheet and places the copy at the

end of the list of current worksheets:

ActiveSheet.Copy After:=Worksheets(Worksheets.Count)

Delete method

This method simply deletes the worksheet. The syntax is:


EnableCalculation property (R/W Boolean)

When this property is True, Excel automatically recalculates the worksheet when

necessary. Otherwise, the user must request a recalculation. Note that when this property

is first set to True, Excel will do a recalculation.

Evaluate method

The Evaluate method converts an Excel name to an object or a value. We discussed the

details of this method in Chapter 16.

FilterMode property (Read-Only Boolean)

This property is True if the worksheet is in filter mode. Thus, for instance, if the

AutoFilter arrows are displayed but no filtering has taken place, then AutoFilterMode is

True whereas FilterMode is False. Once filtering is actually performed, then

FilterMode is True. Put another way, the FilterMode property indicates whether there are

hidden rows due to filtering.

Move method

The Move method moves the worksheet to another location in the workbook. The syntax


WorksheetObject.Move(Before, After)

where the parameters have the same meaning as in the Copy method, discussed earlier in

this section.

Name property (R/W String)

This property returns or sets the name of the worksheet, as a string.

Names property

This property returns the Names collection representing all the worksheet-specific names.

For more on Name objects, see Chapter 16.

PasteSpecial method


This method pastes the contents of the Clipboard onto the worksheet, using a specified

format. The most commonly used syntax is simply:


where Format specifies the format of the data to paste, as a string. For instance, the

following code pastes data in Word document format (assuming that it exists on the


ActiveSheet.PasteSpecial "Microsoft Word Document"

To learn the syntax of other Format strings, you can copy the desired object and then

check Excel's Paste Special dialog box.

Note that we must select the destination range before using the PasteSpecial method.

PrintOut method

The PrintOut method prints a worksheet. (The method also applies to Workbook and

Range objects.) The syntax is:

WorksheetObject.PrintOut(From, To, Copies, _

Preview, ActivePrinter, PrintToFile, Collate)

Note that all of the parameters to this method are optional.

The From parameter specifies the page number of the first page to print, and the To

parameter specifies the last page to print. If omitted, the entire object (range, worksheet,

etc.) is printed.

The Copies parameter specifies the number of copies to print. The default is 1.

Set Preview to True to invoke print preview rather than printing immediately. The

default is False.

ActivePrinter sets the name of the active printer.

Setting PrintToFile to True causes Excel to print to a file. Excel will prompt the user

for the name of the output file. (Unfortunately, there is no way to specify the name of the

output file in code.)

The Collate parameter should be set to True to collate multiple multipage copies.

PrintPreview method

This method invokes Excel's print preview feature for the worksheet. Its syntax is:


Protect method

This method protects a worksheet from modification. Its syntax is:

WorksheetObject.Protect(Password, DrawingObjects, _


Contents, Scenarios, UserInterfaceOnly)

(Note that the syntax varies from the same method of the Workbook object.)

The optional Password parameter is a string that specifies a case-sensitive password for

the worksheet.

The optional DrawingObjects parameter should be set to True to protect shapes. The

default value is False.

The optional Contents parameter should be set to True, the default, to protect the cells

in the worksheet.

The optional Scenarios parameter should be set to True, the default, to protect


The Protect method allows independent protection of cells from changes by the user and

by code. In particular, if UserInterfaceOnly is set to True, then the user cannot

make changes to the worksheet, but changes can be made through code. On the other

hand, if UserInterfaceOnly is False (the default), then neither the user nor the

programmer can alter the worksheet. Note that it is not the macros themselves that are

protected, as the help documentation seems to indicate. Rather, the worksheet is protected

from the effect of the macros.

Note also that if the UserInterfaceOnly argument is set to True when protecting a

worksheet and then the workbook is saved, the entire worksheet (not just the interface)

will be protected when the workbook is reopened. To unprotect the worksheet but

reenable user interface protection, we must reapply the Protect method with

UserInterfaceOnly set to True.

ProtectionMode property (Read-Only)

This property is True if user-interface-only protection is turned on (via the Protect

method). Its default value is False.

SaveAs method

This method saves changes to the worksheet in a different file. Its syntax is:

WorksheetObject.SaveAs(Filename, FileFormat, Password, _

WriteResPassword, ReadOnlyRecommended, CreateBackup, _

AddToMru, TextCodePage, TextVisualLayout)

The Filename parameter specifies the filename to use for the newly saved disk file. If a

path is not included, Excel will use the current folder.

The FileFormat parameter specifies the file format to use when saving the file. Its

value is one of the XlFileFormat constants described in our discussion of the

FileFormat property in Chapter 17.

The Password parameter specifies the password to use when saving the file and can be

set to any case-sensitive string of up to 15 characters.


The WriteResPassword parameter is a string that specifies the write-reservation

password for this file. If a file is saved with a write-reservation password and this

password is not supplied when the file is next opened, the file will be opened as read-only.

We can set the ReadOnlyRecommended parameter to True to display a message when

the file is opened, recommending that the file be opened as read-only.

Set the CreateBackup parameter to True to create a backup file.

Set the AddToMru parameter to True to add the workbook to the list of recently used

files. The default value is False.

The remaining parameters are not used in the U.S. English version of Excel.

ScrollArea property

This property returns or sets the range where scrolling and cell selection is allowed. The

value should be an A1-style range reference. For instance, the code:

ActiveSheet.ScrollArea = "A1:B200"




allows cell selection and scrolling only within the range A1:B200. To remove any

restrictions on cell selection and scrolling, set this property to an empty string, as in:

ActiveSheet.ScrollArea = ""

Note that setting the scroll area has nothing to do with freezing panes.

Select method


This method selects the worksheet. This is not the same as making it active through the

Activate method. In fact, several sheets can be selected at one time (to delete them, for

instance). The syntax is:


where Replace is set to True to replace the current selection with the specified

worksheet, rather than including the worksheet in the current selection.

SetBackgroundPicture method

This method sets the background graphic for a worksheet (or chart). The syntax is:


where FileName is the name of the graphic file to use for the background.

ShowDataForm method

This method displays the data form associated with the worksheet. Note that for the

ShowDataForm method to work without generating an error, Excel must be able to

determine that the current selection is part of a list. For information on the use of data

forms, see the Excel 8 help topic "Guidelines for creating a list on a worksheet" or the

Excel 9 help topic "About data forms."

217 ®


The syntax of this method is simply:


Note that the procedure in which the ShowDataForm method is called will pause while

the data form is displayed. When the data form is closed, the procedure will resume at the

line following the call to ShowDataForm. (In other words, the data form is modal.)

Figure 18-2 illustrates the data form for a worksheet.

Figure 18-2. A data form

Unprotect method

This method removes protection from a worksheet. It has no effect if the worksheet is not

protected. The syntax is:


where Password is the password used to protect the worksheet (if any). If we omit this

argument for a sheet that is password-protected, Excel will prompt the user for the


UsedRange property

This ostensibly very useful property returns a Range object that represents the smallest

rectangular region that encompasses any currently used cells.

Unfortunately, the UsedRange property has had a rather rocky history in past versions of

Excel, and my experience is that the problems have not been completely resolved in Excel

97. (Unfortunately, I know of no single test to check the reliability of this property, and I

have not yet used Excel 9 long enough to make a definitive statement about this version.)

Thus, I strongly suggest that you use this method with caution, for it sometimes seems to

include cells that once had contents but have since been completely cleared.


At the end of Chapter 19, we will give an example function that can be used to compute

the correct used range.

Visible property

This property returns True if the worksheet is visible and False otherwise. However, in

addition to setting this property to True or False, we can also set this property to

xlVeryHidden, in which case the only way to make the worksheet visible is by setting

this property to True in code. Hence, the user cannot make the worksheet visible.

18.2 Children of the Worksheet Object

Let us discuss a few of the children of the Worksheet object. Others will be discussed in later



The Comments property returns the Comments collection, which consists of all Comment

objects (comments) in the worksheet. We will discuss the Comment object in Chapter 19.

The Names collection

We discussed the Names collection and Name objects in Chapter 16, and so we refer the

reader to that earlier discussion.

The Outline object

To illustrate Excel outlining using code, consider the worksheet shown in Figure 18-3.

Our goal is to produce the outline in Figure 18-4.

Figure 18-3. Illustrating Excel outlines

Figure 18-4. The end result


The first step in obtaining the outline in Figure 18-4 is to set the properties of the Outline

object for this worksheet. The Outline property of the Worksheet object returns an

Outline object, so we begin with:

With ActiveSheet.Outline

.SummaryRow = xlBelow

.AutomaticStyles = False

End With

Setting the SummaryRow property to xlBelow tells Excel that our summary rows (the

subtotal and total rows) lie below the detailed data. Thus, Excel will place the

expansion/contraction buttons (the small buttons displaying minus signs in Figure 18-4) at

the appropriate rows.

Setting AutomaticStyles to False prevents Excel from tampering with our formatting.

Otherwise, Excel would remove the boldfacing on the summary rows.

As you can see in Figure 18-4, we want to make the following groupings:

Rows 2-4

Rows 7-9

Rows 2-11

For this, we use the Group method of the Range object. In particular, the following code

accomplishes the desired grouping, resulting in Figure 18-4:

With ActiveSheet




End With

Note that the SummaryColumn property of the Outline object governs the location of the

expansion/contraction buttons when columns grouped.

To expand or collapse levels, the user can click the small numbered buttons at the top of

the leftmost column in Figure 18-4. Clicking on button number X results in all levels

above X being completely expanded and all levels below and including X being

completely contracted. Thus, all rows at level X and above are made visible, but no levels

below X are visible.


The same thing can be accomplished using the ShowLevels method of the Outline object,

whose syntax is:

OutlineObject.ShowLevels(RowLevels, ColumnLevels)

For instance, the code:

ActiveSheet.Outline.ShowLevels 2

is equivalent to clicking on the button labeled 2 and has the effect of showing all levels

above and including level 2, as pictured in Figure 18-5.

Figure 18-5. Outline collapsed to level 2

The PageSetup object

The PageSetup object represents the page formatting (such as margins and paper size) of

an Excel worksheet. Each of the page-formatting options is set by setting a corresponding

property of the PageSetup object.

The PageSetup property of the Worksheet object returns the worksheet's PageSetup object.

The properties and methods of the PageSetup object are shown in Table 18-3. (All of the

items in Table 18-3 are properties except the PrintQuality method.) Most of the members

in Table 18-3 are self-explanatory (and hold no real surprises), so we will not discuss


Table 18-3. Members of the PageSetup Object











































To illustrate, the following code sets some of the properties of the active worksheet:


With ActiveSheet.PageSetup

.LeftMargin = Application.InchesToPoints(1)

.RightMargin = Application.InchesToPoints(1)

.PrintTitleRows = "A1"

.PaperSize = xlPaperLetter

End With

Note the use of the InchesToPoints function, which is required if we want to express

units in inches, since most of the formatting properties require measurement in points.

Referring to Figure 18-6, the PrintTitleRows property will cause the word Report, which

lies in cell A1, to appear on each page of the printout.

Figure 18-6. A worksheet and the PrintTitleRows property

18.3 Protection in Excel XP

Excel XP introduces some additional protection features, beginning with the Protection object,

which we discuss next.

18.3.1 The Protection Object

When you protect a worksheet, Excel permits you to specify that certain operations are still

permitted on unlocked cells. At the user level, this is done through the Protection dialog box. At

the programming level, it is done through the properties of the Protection object. Most of these

properties (listed below) are self-explanatory. Note that all of these properties except

AllowEditRanges are Boolean.














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