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Figure 19-12. Illustrating the Dependents property

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19.3.21 Precedents and DirectPrecedents Properties

These properties work just like the Dependents and DirectDependents properties, but in the

reverse direction. For instance, referring to Figure 19-12, the line:


selects the cells B1 and A1, whereas the line:


selects the cell B1.

19.3.22 End Property

This property returns a Range object that represents the cell at the "end" of the region that contains

the source range by mimicking a keystroke combination (see the following code). The syntax is:


where RangeObject should be a reference to a single cell and Direction is one of the

following constants. (The keystroke combination is also given in the following code.)

Enum XlDirection

xlUp = -4162

xlToRight = -4161

xlToLeft = -4159

xlDown = -4121

End Enum









Thus, for instance, the code:


selects the rightmost cell in Row 4 for which all cells between that cell and cell C4 are nonempty

(that is, the cell immediately to the left of the first empty cell in row 4 following cell C4).

19.3.23 EntireColumn and EntireRow Properties

The EntireColumn property returns a Range object that represents the column or columns that

contain the specified range. The EntireRow property returns a Range object that represents the

row or rows that contain the specified range.

For instance, the code:


selects the first three rows of the current worksheet.

19.3.24 Fill Methods

The Excel object model has four Fill methods: FillDown, FillUp, FillLeft, and FillRight. As

expected, these methods work similarly, so we will describe only FillDown.


The FillDown method fills down from the top cell or cells in the specified range to the bottom of

the range. The contents, formulas, and formatting of the cell or cells in the top row of a range are

copied into the rest of the rows in the range. The syntax is:


For instance, the code:


will duplicate the values of cells B3 through B5 in cells C3 through C5 and D3 through D5.

19.3.25 Find Method

The Find method returns the first cell in a given range that satisfies a criterion. Note that the Find

method returns Nothing if no match is found. In any case, it does not affect the selection or the

active cell.

The syntax of the Find method is:

RangeObject.Find(What, After, LookIn, LookAt, _

SearchOrder, SearchDirection, MatchCase, MatchByte)

Note that all of the parameters except What are optional.

The What parameter is the data to search for and can be a string or any other valid Excel data type

(number, date, etc.).

The After parameter is the cell after which the search should begin. (This would be the active

cell when doing a search from the user interface.) Thus, the cell referred to by After is the last

cell searched. If the After argument is omitted, the search starts after the cell in the upper-left

corner of the range.

The LookIn parameter is one of the following constants:

Enum XlFindLookIn

xlValues = -4163

xlComments = -4144

xlFormulas = -4123

End Enum

The LookAt parameter is one of the following constants that determines whether the What value

must match the cell's entire contents or just any part of the cell's contents:

Enum XlLookAt

xlWhole = 1

xlPart = 2

End Enum

The SearchOrder parameter is one of the following XlSearchOrder constants:

Enum XlSearchOrder

xlByRows = 1

xlByColumns = 2

End Enum


The SearchDirection parameter is one of the following XlSearchDirection constants:

Enum XlSearchDirection

xlNext = 1

xlPrevious = 2

End Enum

' Default

The MatchCase parameter should be set to True to do a case-sensitive search; otherwise, the

search will be case-insensitive. (The MatchByte parameter is used only in the Far East version of

Microsoft Excel. See the help documentation for details.)

There are several things to note about the Find method:

The values of the LookIn , LookAt, SearchOrder, MatchCase, and MatchByte

parameters (but not the SearchDirection parameter) are saved each time the Find

method is invoked and are then reused for the next call to this method. Note also that

setting these arguments changes the corresponding settings in Excel's Find dialog box,

and, conversely, changing the settings in the Find dialog box changes the values of these

parameters. This implies that we cannot rely on the values of these parameters, since the

user may have changed them through the Find dialog box. Hence, it is important to

specify each of these arguments for each call to the Find method.

The FindNext and FindPrevious methods (described in the next section) can be used to

repeat a search.

When a search reaches the end of the specified search range, it wraps around to the

beginning of the range. If you do not want this behavior, consider using a different range.

To find cells that match more complicated search criteria, such as those involving

wildcard matches, we must use a more manual approach, such as cycling through the cells

in the range with a For Each loop and using the Like operator. For instance, the

following code searches for all cells in the range A1:C5 whose contents begin with an

"A" and sets the font for these cells to bold (note the use of the evaluation operator to

denote the range A1:C5):

Dim c As Range

For Each c In [A1:C5]

If c.Value Like "A*" Then

c.Font.Bold = True

End If


19.3.26 FindNext and FindPrevious Methods

The FindNext method continues a search that was started with the Find method, returning the next

cell that matches the criteria. The syntax is:


The After parameter must be specified or the search will begin at the upper-left corner of the

range. Thus, FindNext is the same as Find, except that it uses all of the parameters (except After)

that were set by the previous use of the Find method.

To continue the search from the last cell found, use that cell as the After argument. For instance,

the following code searches for all cells in the top row that contain the value 0 and removes the


Dim c As Range


Dim sFirstHit As String

' Address of first hit

With Rows(1)

Set c = .Find(0, LookIn:=xlValues)

If Not c Is Nothing Then

sFirstHit = c.Address


' Change cell contents

c.Value = ""

' find next cell

Set c = .FindNext(c)

Loop While Not c Is Nothing

End If

End With

The FindPrevious method has the syntax:


and works just like the FindNext method, but searches backward in the range starting with the cell

before the cell referred to by the Before parameter (with wrap around from the beginning of the

range to the end).

19.3.27 Formula and FormulaR1C1 Properties

The Formula property returns or sets the formula or value for each cell in the range. The formula

must be expressed in A1-style notation, and must include a leading equal sign.

For instance, the line:

Range("A1").Formula = "=Sum(A2:A3)"

sets the formula in cell A1. The line:

Range("A1:C1").Formula = "=Sum(A2:A3)"

places the formula in cells A1:C1, but because the formula uses relative references, these

references will be altered as usual. If we want to put the exact same formula in each cell, we must

use an array, as in:

Range("A1:C1").Formula = _

Array("=Sum(A2:A3)", "=Sum(A2:A3)", "=Sum(A2:A3)")

We can also return an array using the Formula property. To illustrate, consider the worksheet in

Figure 19-13. The code:

Dim a As Variant

a = Range("A1:C2").Formula

sets the Variant variable a to an array, so that, for instance, a(2,3) = 7. Note that the Formula

property returns a Variant, so that a must be declared as a Variant.

Figure 19-13. Illustrating the Formula property


If a cell contains a constant, the Formula property returns that constant. We can also assign a

constant to a cell by writing, for example:

Range("A1").Formula = 1

If the cell is empty, then the Formula property returns an empty string. If the cell contains a

formula, then the Formula method returns the formula as a string, as it would be displayed in the

formula bar (including the equal sign).

If we set the Formula property (or the Value property) of a cell to a date, then Excel checks to see

whether that cell is already formatted with one of the date or time formats. If not, Excel uses the

default short date format.

The FormulaR1C1 property is the analog to the Formula property but accepts and returns formulas

in R1C1 style.

19.3.28 FormulaArray Property

The FormulaArray property returns or sets an array formula, which must be in R1C1 style, for a

range. To illustrate, consider the worksheet shown in Figure 19-14. The code:

Range("A9:C11").FormulaArray = "=A1:C3 + A5:C7"

produced the values in cells A9:C11 in Figure 19-14. The formula on the left says to add the

contents of each cell in the uppermost 3-by-3 array to the corresponding cell in the middle 3-by-3

array, and place the result in the corresponding cell in the lower 3-by-3 array.

Figure 19-14. Illustrating the FormulaArray property

Note also that the code:

Debug.Print Range("A9").FormulaArray

prints the array formula:


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