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Figure 19-14. Illustrating the FormulaArray property

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=A1:C3 + A5:C7

19.3.29 FormulaHidden Property (R/W Boolean)

This property returns or sets the Hidden state (True or False) for the formula in the cell to

which it is applied. This is equivalent to setting the Hidden check box in the Protection tab of the

Format Cells dialog.

Note that this is not the same as the Hidden property, which applies to ranges that consist of entire

rows (or entire columns) and determines whether or not those rows (or columns) are hidden from


19.3.30 HasFormula Property (Read-Only)

This property returns True if all cells in the range contain formulas; it returns False if none of

the cells in the range contains a formula and Null otherwise.

19.3.31 HorizontalAlignment Property

The HorizontalAlignment property returns or sets the horizontal alignment of all cells in the range.

The value can be one of the following constants:

Enum XlHAlign

xlHAlignRight = -4152

xlHAlignLeft = -4131

xlHAlignJustify = -4130

xlHAlignDistributed = -4117

'for Far East Excel

xlHAlignCenter = -4108

xlHAlignGeneral = 1

xlHAlignFill = 5

xlHAlignCenterAcrossSelection = 7

End Enum

Note especially the xlHAlignCenterAcrossSelection constant, which is very useful for

aligning a title across multiple cells.

19.3.32 IndentLevel Property and InsertIndent Method

The IndentLevel property returns or sets the left indent for each cell in the range and can be any

integer between 0 and 15. All other settings cause an error. Presumably, indents are useful for

aligning the contents of cells or for formatting text.

For instance, to set the indent level of cell A1 to 10, we can write:

Range("A1").IndentLevel = 10

Unfortunately, the documentation does not specify how big an indent unit is, but we can still use

indent units in a relative way. Presumably, an indent level of 2 is twice that of an indent level of 1.

An alternative is to use the InsertIndent method, with the syntax:



where InsertAmount is an integer between 0 and 15. However, in this case, the InsertAmount

parameter specifies the amount to change the current indent for the range.

19.3.33 Insert Method

This method inserts a cell or range of cells into the worksheet, shifting existing cells to make room.

The syntax is:


where Shift can be one of the XlInsertShiftDirection constants:

Enum XlInsertShiftDirection

xlShiftToRight = -4161

xlShiftDown = -4121

End Enum

If the Shift argument is omitted, Excel will decide upon the shift direction based on the shape of

the range. (As with other cases when Excel will guess, I recommend against allowing it to do so.)

19.3.34 Locked Property




This property returns the Locked status of the cells in the range or can be used to lock the range.

The property returns Null if the range contains both locked and unlocked cells.

19.3.35 Merge-Related Methods and Properties


It is quite common to create a merged cell (that is, a single cell created by combining several

adjacent cells) for use as a title or heading, for instance.

The Merge method creates a merged cell from the specified range. The syntax is:


where Across is an optional Variant that should be set to True to merge the cells in each row of

the range into a single cell per row or False (the default) to merge all cells in all rows into a

single cell. Note that when the individual cells contain data, the merged cell will contain only the

data from the upper-left cell. Hence, the data in all other cells will be lost.

The UnMerge method separates a merged area into individual cells. Its syntax is:


Note that as long as RangeObject contains any of the cells within a merged range, even if it

does not contain all merged cells or if it contains additional cells not in the merged area, the

method will unmerge the merged range. Note that calling the UnMerge method on a range that

does not contain merged cells has no effect and does not produce a runtime error.

The MergeArea property applies only to ranges that consist of a single cell (otherwise an error

occurs). The property returns a Range object representing the merged range containing that cell

(or the cell itself if it is not part of a merged range).

257 ®


The MergeCells property returns True if the specified range is contained within a merged range

of cells. The property returns Null if the specified range contains cells that are within a merged

range as well as cells that lie outside the merged range.

19.3.36 Next and Previous Properties

When applied to a Range object, the Next property returns the cell that would be made active by

striking the


key, although it does not actually select that cell. Thus, on an unprotected sheet, this

property returns the cell immediately to the right of the upper-left cell in the range. On

a protected sheet, this property returns the next unlocked cell.

Similarly, the Previous property emulates the Shift-Tab key by returning the appropriate cell (also

without selecting the cell).

19.3.37 NumberFormat Property

This property returns or sets the number-formatting string for the cells in the range. Note that the

property will return Null if the cells in the range do not all have the same number format.

One of the simplest ways to determine the desired formatting string is to record an Excel macro

and use the Format dialog. You can then inspect the macro code for the correct formatting string.

19.3.38 Parse Method

This method parses the data in a column (or portion thereof) and distributes the contents of the

range to fill adjacent columns. The syntax is:

RangeObject.Parse(ParseLine, Destination)

where RangeObject can be no more than one column wide.

The ParseLine parameter is a string containing left and right brackets to indicate where the data

in the cells in the column should be split. For example, the string:

[xxx] [xxx]

causes the Parse method to insert the first three characters from each cell into the first column of

the destination range, skip the fourth character, and then insert the next three characters into the

second column. Any additional characters (beyond the first six) are not included in the destination.

This makes the Parse method most useful for parsing fixed-length data (each cell has data of the

same length).

The Destination parameter is a Range object that represents the upper-left corner of the

destination range for the parsed data. If this argument is omitted, Excel will parse the data in place;

that is, it will use the source column as the first destination column.

19.3.39 PasteSpecial Method

This method pastes data from the Clipboard into the specified range. The syntax is:


RangeObject.PasteSpecial(Paste, Operation, SkipBlanks, Transpose)

The Paste parameter indicates what will be pasted and is one of the following XlPasteType


Enum XlPasteType

xlPasteValues = -4163

xlPasteComments = -4144

xlPasteFormulas = -4123

xlPasteFormats = -4122

xlPasteAll = -4104

xlPasteAllExceptBorders = 6

End Enum

' Default

The optional Operation parameter specifies a paste operation and can be one of the following

XlPasteSpecialOperation constants:

Enum XlPasteSpecialOperation

xlPasteSpecialOperationNone = -4142

xlPasteSpecialOperationAdd = 2

xlPasteSpecialOperationSubtract = 3

xlPasteSpecialOperationMultiply = 4

xlPasteSpecialOperationDivide = 5

End Enum

' Default

The SkipBlanks parameter should be set to True to skip pasting blank cells from the Clipboard.

To illustrate, suppose that the cell on the Clipboard that is destined to be pasted into cell D5 is

blank. If SkipBlanks is False (the default), then whatever is in D5 before the paste operation

will be overwritten when the blank cell is pasted, so D5 will then be empty. However, if

SkipBlank is True, the blank cell will not be pasted into D5 and so the contents of D5 will not

be disturbed.

The optional Transpose parameter can be set to True to transpose rows and columns when the

range is pasted. The default value is False.

19.3.40 PrintOut Method

The PrintOut method prints a range. (This method applies to a host of other objects as well, such

as Worksheet, Workbook, and Chart.) The syntax is:

RangeObject.PrintOut(From, To, Copies, Preview, _

ActivePrinter, PrintToFile, Collate)

Note that all of the parameters to this method are optional.

The From parameter specifies the page number of the first page to print, and the To parameter

specifies the last page to print. If omitted, the entire object (range, worksheet, etc.) is printed.

The Copies parameter specifies the number of copies to print. The default is 1.

Set Preview to True to invoke print preview rather than printing immediately. The default is

False. ActivePrinter sets the name of the active printer.


Setting PrintToFile to True causes Excel to print to a file. Excel will prompt the user for the

name of the output file. (Unfortunately, there is no way to specify the name of the output file in


The Collate parameter should be set to True to collate multiple multipage copies.

19.3.41 PrintPreview Method

This method invokes Excel's print preview feature for the given range (this method applies to the

same list of objects as the PrintOut method). Its syntax is:


19.3.42 Replace Method

This method finds and replaces specified data in all cells in a range. It has no effect on the

selection or the active cell. The syntax is:

RangeObject.Replace(What, Replacement, LookAt, _

SearchOrder, MatchCase, MatchByte)

The What parameter is the data to search for, and the Replacement parameter is the

replacement data. These data can be strings or any other valid Excel data types (numbers, dates,


The LookAt parameter is one of the following constants that determines whether the What value

must match the cell's entire contents or just any part of the cell's contents:

Enum XlLookAt

xlWhole = 1

xlPart = 2

End Enum

The SearchOrder parameter is one of the following XlSearchOrder constants:

Enum XlSearchOrder

xlByRows = 1

xlByColumns = 2

End Enum

The MatchCase parameter should be set to True to do a case-sensitive search (the default is

False). The MatchByte parameter is used only in the Far East version of Microsoft Excel. See

the help documentation for details.

Note that the values of the LookAt, SearchOrder, MatchCase, and MatchByte parameters

are saved each time the Find method is invoked and then reused for the next call to this method.

Note also that setting these arguments changes the corresponding settings in Excel's Find dialog

box, and conversely, changing the settings in the Find dialog box changes the values of these

parameters. This implies that we cannot rely on the values of these parameters, since the user may

have changed them through the Find dialog box. Hence, it is important to specify each of these

arguments for each call to the Find method.

If the contents of the What argument are found at least once, the Replace method returns True.


19.3.43 Select Method

This method selects the given range. Actually, the Select method applies to a whopping 81

different Excel objects. For the Range object, its syntax is:


Note that this method selects a range of cells, whereas the Activate method activates a single cell.

19.3.44 ShrinkToFit Property

This property can be set to True to tell Excel to shrink the font size of all text in the range so that

the text fits the available column width. It also returns True if ShrinkToFit is set for all cells in

the range, False if it is turned off for all cells in the range, or Null if some cells have

ShrinkToFit turned on and others have ShrinkToFit turned off.

19.3.45 Sort Method

This method sorts a range or the current region when the specified range contains only one cell. It

can also be used to sort a pivot table. The syntax is:

RangeObject.Sort(Key1, Order1, Key2, Type, Order2, Key3, Order3, _

Header, OrderCustom, MatchCase, Orientation, SortMethod, _

IgnoreControlCharacters, IgnoreDiacritics, IgnoreKashida)

Sorting can take place based on up to three keys, denoted by Key1, Key2, and Key3. These

parameters can be expressed as text (a range name) or a Range object. The corresponding Order

parameter can be set to one of the following values:

Enum XlSortOrder

xlAscending = 1

xlDescending = 2

End Enum

' Default

The optional Type parameter is used only when sorting pivot tables.

The optional Header parameter specifies whether the first row contains headers, in which case

they are not included in the sort. The Header parameter can be one of the following values:

Enum XlYesNoGuess

xlGuess = 0

xlYes = 1

xlNo = 2

End Enum

' Default

The optional OrderCustom parameter is an integer offset into the list of custom sort orders.

However, Microsoft seems not to have documented this further, so it seems best to simply omit

this argument, in which case it is assumed to be Normal (which sounds good).

The optional MatchCase parameter should be set to True to do a case-sensitive sort and False

(the default) to do a sort that is not case-sensitive. For instance, suppose that cell A1 contains the

text "AAA" and cell A2 contains the text "aaa." The code:

Range("A1:A2").Sort Key1:=Cells(1, 1), MatchCase:=True


will swap the contents of these two cells, but the code:

Range("A1:A2").Sort Key1:=Cells(1, 1), MatchCase:=False

will not.

The optional Orientation parameter determines whether the sort is done by row or by column.

It can assume either of the values in the following enum:

Enum XlSortOrientation

xlSortColumns = 1

xlSortRows = 2

End Enum

For instance:

Range("A1:B2").Sort Key1:=Rows(1), Orientation:=xlSortColumns

sorts the columns in the range A1:B2 using the first row for the sort key.

The rest of the parameters are not used in the U.S. English version of Excel. The SortMethod

parameter is not documented, but it has a default value xlPinYin, whatever that means.

19.3.46 SpecialCells Method

This method returns a Range object that represents all the cells that match a specified type and

value. The syntax is:

RangeObject.SpecialCells(Type, Value)

The Type parameter specifies the type of cells to include from RangeObject. It can be one of

the following XlCellType constants:

Enum XlCellType

xlCellTypeComments = -4144

xlCellTypeFormulas = -4123

xlCellTypeConstants = 2

xlCellTypeBlanks = 4

xlCellTypeLastCell = 11

xlCellTypeVisible = 12

End Enum

'Cells with comments

'Cells with formulas

'Cells with constants

'Blank cells

'Last cell in range

'All visible cells

For instance, the code:


selects all blank cells in the range A1:D10.

The optional Value parameter applies when the Type parameter is either

xlCellTypeConstants or xlCellTypeFormulas and identifies more specifically the type

of cell to return. In these cases, the Value parameter can be set to one of, or a sum of, the

following constants:

Enum XlSpecialCellsValue

xlNumbers = 1


xlTextValues = 2

xlLogical = 4

xlErrors = 16

End Enum

For instance, the code:



selects only the cells with text (as opposed to numbers) within the range A1:D10.

19.3.47 TextToColumns Method

This method parses a column (or columns) of cells that contain text into several columns. The

syntax is:

RangeObject.TextToColumns(Destination, DataType, _

TextQualifier, ConsecutiveDelimiter, Tab, Semicolon, _

Comma, Space, Other, OtherChar, FieldInfo)

Note that all of the parameters to this method are optional.

The Destination parameter is a Range object that specifies where to put the results of the

conversion. If the Range object represents more than a single cell, then the starting point for the

destination is the upper-left cell in that range.

The DataType parameter specifies the format of the text to be split into columns. It can be one of

the following XlTextParsingType constants:

Enum XlTextParsingType

xlDelimited = 1

xlFixedWidth = 2

End Enum

' Default

The TextQualifier parameter is the text qualifier. It can be one of the following

XlTextQualifier constants:

Enum XlTextQualifier

xlTextQualifierNone = -4142

xlTextQualifierDoubleQuote = 1

xlTextQualifierSingleQuote = 2

End Enum

' Default

The ConsecutiveDelimiter parameter should be set to True to have Excel consider

consecutive delimiters as one delimiter. The default value is False.

There are several parameters that require that the DataType be xlDelimited and, when set to

True, indicate that Excel should use the corresponding character as the text delimiter. They are

described in the following list (all default values are False):


Set to True to use the tab character as delimiter.



Set to True to use a semicolon as delimiter.


Set to True to use a comma as delimiter.


Set to True to use a space as delimiter.


Set to True to use a character that is specified by the OtherChar argument as delimiter.

When Other is True, OtherChar specifies the delimiter character. If OtherChar contains

more than one character, only the first character is used.

The FieldInfo parameter is an array containing parse information for the individual source

columns. The interpretation of FieldInfo depends on the value of DataType.

When DataType is xlDelimited, the FieldInfo argument should be an array whose size is

the same as (or smaller than—see Table 19-3) the number of columns of converted data. The first

element of a two-element array is the column number (starting with the number 1), and the second

element is one of the numbers in Table 19-3 that specifies how the column is parsed.











Table 19-3. FieldInfo Values for xlDelimited Text




MDY date

DMY date

YMD date

MYD date

DYM date

YDM date

Skip the column

If a two-element array for a given column is missing, then the column is parsed with the General

setting. For instance, the following value for FieldInfo causes the first column to be parsed as

text and the third column to be skipped:

Array(Array(1, 2), Array(3, 9))

All other columns will be parsed as general data.

To illustrate, consider the sheet shown in Figure 19-15. The code:

Range("A1:A3").TextToColumns _

Destination:=Range("B1"), _

DataType:=xlDelimited, _


ConsecutiveDelimiter:=True, Comma:=True, _

FieldInfo:=Array(Array(1, 2), Array(2, 3))

produces the second and third columns of Figure 19-15. Note that the cells in column C are

formatted as dates.

Figure 19-15. A worksheet with text to be parsed in A1:A3

On the other hand, if DataType is xlFixedWidth, the first element of each two-element array

specifies the starting character position in the column (0 being the first character) and the second

element specifies the parse option (1-9) for the resulting column, as described previously.

To illustrate, consider the worksheet in Figure 19-16. The code:

Range("A1:A3").TextToColumns _

Destination:=Range("B1"), _

DataType:=xlFixedWidth, _

FieldInfo:=Array(Array(0, 2), _

Array(1, 9), Array(2, 2), Array(5, 9), _

Array(6, 2))

parses the first column of Figure 19-16 into the remaining columns. (Note how we included arrays

to skip the hyphens.)

Figure 19-16. A worksheet with fixed-width data to be parsed in A1:A3

19.3.48 Value Property

The Value property returns the value of the specified cell. If the cell is empty, Value returns an

empty string. This can be tested in either of the following ways:

If Range("A1") = "" Then . . .


If IsEmpty(Range("A1")) Then . . .

If the Range object contains more than one cell, the Value property returns a two-dimensional

array. For instance, referring to Figure 19-16, the code:

Dim v As Variant

v = Range("A1:A3").Value

Debug.Print IsArray(v)


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