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Object, Subject, Scope and Scientific hypothesis
education and training, including education and training at military
officers-training colleges in the Vietnam people’s Army. It is based on a
system of views: view of activity; concrete and historical view;
* Research method
The thesis uses a combination of different methods of psychology
studies in general and military psychology studies in particular:
In terms of theory: Analysing, generalizing some scientific
works related to emotion management skills of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in order to form theory of the thesis.
In terms of practice: Method of observation; Method of
questionnaires; Method of conversation; Method of interview;
Method of experts consult; Method of experiment; Method of
In terms of maths statistics: Use of software SPSS 20.0 to
calculate the data of survey, investigation, experiment and showing
5. New contributions of the thesis
* In terms of theory
The thesis generalizes the theory on emotion management
skills and forms some basic concepts: emotion management, skill of
emotion management, emotion management skills of cadets at
military officers-training colleges. It identifies that the signs of
emotion management skills of cadets are shown through 4 component
skills (skill of identifying emotion, skill of controlling emotion, skill
of directing emotion, skill of using emotion) and factors affecting
skill of emotion management of cadets.
* In terms of practice
The thesis points out that the actual situation of emotion
management skills of cadets are shown in 4 skills: skill of identifying
emotion, skill of controlling emotion, skill of directing emotion and
skill of using emotion are of above- average level. The worst is skill
of using emotion; the best is skill of identifying emotion.
Emotion management skills of cadets is affected by 2 groups of
factors: Group of subjective factors and group of objective factors. Of
which, group of subjective factors have more impact than group of
objective factors. The findings of experiment show that skill of
emotion management of cadets at military schools can be promoted by
the following pedagogic measure: Nurturing skill of using emotion for
cadets at Army N1 Officers-Training College.
6. Theoretical and practical significance of the thesis
* Theoretical significance
The thesis contributes to supplement and develop the theory on
Psychology studies of skill of emotion management and emotion
management skills of cadets at military schools. The thesis identifies the
basic sighs of emotion management skills of cadets at military schools
and points out factors affecting emotion management skills of cadets at
military officers-training colleges.
* Practical significance
The thesis provides the scientific basis for promoting emotion
management skills of cadets, contributing to improve the quality of
cadets at military officers-training colleges. It can also be used as
references for researching on emotion management skills in general
and researching, educating and supervising officers-training cadets at
military officers-training colleges in particular.
7. Structure of the thesis
The thesis includes: Introduction, Overview, The content consists of
4 chapters (11 periods), Conclusion, List of References and Appendixes.
LITERATURE OVERVIEW OF RESEARCHES RELATED TO
THE THESIS TOPIC
1.1. The foreign works related to the thesis topic
1.1.1. The works on emotion
* The works on emotion as phenomenon of individual psychology
Here are typical authors: Cruchetxki V. A. (1982), Rubinxtein X. L.
(1960), Carrol E. Izard (1992), Vugotxki L. X. (1997), Goderfroid Jo.
(1998), Nicky Hayes (2005), Richard J. Gerrig and Philip Zimbardo G.
(2003), etc. In their works, the authors research on issues of emotion
definition, sign, stable level, appearance and origin of emotion,
classifying emotion and impact of emotion on personal activities.
* The works on emotion as a driving force for individuals in
working and their life
Typical authors: Skinner B. (1953), Maslow A. (1970), Strongman
K.T (1987), Carrol E. Izard (1992), Maurice Reuchlin (1995), Keith Oatley
& Fennifer Jenkins M. (1995), Goderfroid (1998), Freud S. (2002), Nicky
Hayes (2005), Helen Greathead (2007), Daniel Goleman (2002, 2015),
James L. Gibson (2011), Virender Kapoor (2012), Richard J. Gerrig and
Philip G. Zimbardo (2003), etc. In these above works, emotion is seen as a
driving force for individuals to act. Therefore, how to maintain, satisfy or
strengthen personal emotion is of great importance.
1.1.2. The works on emotion management
In terms of emotional intelligence, which includes the factors
of being conscious and controlling of the self and of others, there are
works on emotion management. Typical works: Fischer, Manstead,
Evers, Timmers & Valk (2004), Wegner and Therriault (1996),
Diamond & Aspinwall (2003); Michelle Sams (2010). The authors
points out the signs of emotions and causes of these emotions.
1.1.3. The works on emotion management skills
* The works on emotion management skills as one basic factor
and component in emotional intellect
Emotion intelligence is a recent psychological phenomenon
appeared in the end of the 20 th century. The appearance of emotion
intelligence has changed the traditional concept of emotion
intelligence and has widely affected several fields of life. The
research on emotion intelligence started in America with such experts
as: Bar-On R, Salovey and Mayer in 2007, Goleman, etc. Generally
speaking, there are three representatives researching emotion
intelligence in different ways: Bar-On R. touched upon emotion
intelligence under the perspective of personal manner; Salovey and
Mayer under the perspective of consciousness; Daniel Goleman under
the perspective of the work efficiency. In this thesis, we touch upon
emotion intelligence according to the view of Daniel Goleman.
* The works on emotion management skills as a
Soviet psychologists have made an important contribution
researching in communication in general and communicative skill in
particular, especially pedagogical communication. Typical authors:
Cubanova, Dakharo, Leonchiev, etc. In psychology studies in
America, there are a number of authors researching in art of
communication, communicative skill in management and business
such as: Allan Pease (1994), Torrington and his fellows (2004).
* The works on building measurement to identify skill of
Here are typical works: Emotion control questionnaires
(ECQ2) by Roger D. and Najarian B. (1989). These questionnaires
consist of 56 items, divided into 4 categories (14 items in each
category) with 4 areas. Emotional Quotiet Inventory, 1997. This
measures stress control and management. Nowadays, another
measurement is widely used in research in TTCX, that is MEIS by
Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000) designed to measure 4 factors
making up EI, with the ability to control emotion (item 4). However,
these measurements are focused on identifying the general skill of
emotion control, not on specific emotion.
1.2. The domestic works related to the thesis topic
1.2.1. The works on emotion
Emotion is researched by several psychologists in Vietnam,
typically: Vu Dung (2008), Do Manh Ton (2006), Nguyen Quang Uan
(2004), Ngo Cong Hoan (2003), Nguyen Huy Tu (2003), Nguyen Khac
Vien (2003), Nguyen Ngoc Phu (1998), Nguyen Dinh Sang (2015),
etc. These authors believe that emotion is the indispensible product of
the process of satisfying human’s basic necessity. Emotion is the
feeling shown when being affected by other factors.
1.2.2. The works on emotion management skills
* The works on skill of emotion control as a component of
The term “Emotional intelligence” was officially mentioned at
the conference of Social Science at the State level KX-07 by Pham Minh
Hac (chief editor) in 2001. Emotional intelligence - essence and ways
of measurement” by Nguyen Huy Tu (2003). The work at the State
level, code KX-05-06 in the 2001 - 2005 period by Tran Kieu and
Vietnamese psychologists and educationists of Institution of Strategy
and education Program. Emotional intelligence is seen as one of three
factors of intelligence. This serves as a favourable condition for the
author to do research on skill of emotion management of cadets.
* The works on emotion management skills as basic
There are a number of works on communicative skills on
different objects and areas such as: pedagogic communication;
communication and negotiation in leadership; art of communication
in tourist business; communication of military doctors with patients;
communication of political instructors in the Vietnam People’s
Army, etc. Typical authors: Hoang Anh (1993), Nguyen Van Thac
(1992), Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha (2000), Nhu Van Thao (2012), etc.
Generally, these authors indicate that the skills of controlling
communicative process (manage and control personal emotion) is
one components of communicative skill.
* The works on emotion management skills as a kind of life skill
In recent years, emotion management skills is considered as one
kind of life skill, one field of educating life skill for pupils and
students at schools and students support centre. Typically: Nguyen
Quang Uan, Huynh Van Son, Nguyen Thanh Binh, Kim Ngoc Dai, etc. The
contents of education and training contain emotion management skills or
skills of controlling personal emotion and is considered as one life skill
needs educating so as for people to perfect themselves, meeting the demand
of social development and international integration.
* The works related to emotion management skills of cadets at
military officers-training colleges
In Vietnam, there are limited numbers of works on emotion
management skills, focusing on emotion management skills of cadets,
students at pedagogic universities, typical authors: Huynh Van Son, Tran Thi
Thu Mai, Nguyen Thi Hai, Nguyen Ba Phu, Ta Quang Đam, etc. There are
some works on this field but limited to emotion management skills. These
authors present skill of emotion self-management, assessing the actual
situation and factors affecting thoroughly and completely.
1.3. Generalization of the research results of published
scientific works and the focussed issues of the thesis
1.3.1. Generalization of the research results of published
For emotion, there have been many studies of domestic and
foreign researchers on emotion approached from different angles and
on different subjects and objects. At the same time, domestic and
foreign researchers show different schools and opinions in their
studies. For emotion management, emotion management skills,
foreign researchers have many studies on emotion management,
emotion management skills, and their way to study is very clear and
coherent. Domestic studies on emotion management skills are limited
in number and the studies are mainly through TTCX and living skills.
In the field of military operations, there have been some studies on
the emotion management skills and emotion control of lecturer
training cadets and cadets at military officer training colleges. The
results of the mentioned studies on emotion management skills are
very valuable and various sources that the author can exploit and
refer to and inherit in order to fulfil this thesis.
1.3.2. The focused issues of the thesis
In this thesis, the author will continue to study and solve some of
the problems as follows: For emotion management skills, domestic and
foreign psychologists have different opinions. However, the tendency to
consider emotion management skill as a type of living skills, the
complex skill was chosen and studied to justify and make clear this
opinion in studying emotion management skills of the cadets.
Psychologists have different approaches to the emotion
management skills and they have pointed out different skills of
emotion management skills. Based on the studying and training
activities of the cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges, the
author considered the cadets’ emotion management skill a process
to identify the component skills of the cadets’ emotion
management skill. The objectives of the thesis is focus on
clarifying the expressions of the emotion management skills of the
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges; identifying the
evaluating criteria and the factors affecting the emotion
management skills of the cadets to make the foundation for the
reality survey and evaluation.
Developing the emotion management skill of the cadets, the
objectives of the thesis is not only clarifying the theories but also
studying, surveying the reality, and evaluating the reality of this
skill. The emotion management skill of the cadets is affected by
many objective and subjective factors. Therefore, it is necessary to
study and analyse the factors affecting the cadets’ emotion
management skill. At the same time, to check the effect of the
suggested measures, the study needs to carry out experimental
testing on a measure in random to prove its impact on developing
the cadets’ emotion management skill at Military Officer Training
Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army.
Summary of chapter 1
By generalizing domestic and foreign studies relating to the
topic of the thesis, the author assumed that the emotion management
skill of the cadets at officers’ schools has not received adequate
attention from the researchers both on the aspects of theory and
practice. With the special characteristics of studying, training, and
living, the relationships at Military Officer Training Colleges in the
Army require the higher and higher standard of physical strength, the
intense psychology, which is one of the main causes of the bad
emotions among the cadets. Thus, the topic of the thesis is of great
practicality and significance.
Emotion management skill is approached from different angles.
However, there have not been many studies on emotion management
skill in general, and on emotion management skill of cadets at military
officer training colleges in particular. The results of these studied are
diverse and useful sources that the author can exploit, refer to, and
inherit in order to fulfil the thesis.
THEORIES ABOUT EMOTION MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF
DIVISION-OFFICER TRAINING CADETS AT OFFICER
TRAINING COLLEGES IN THE VIETNAM PEOPLE’S
2.1. Emotion management skill
* Definition of emotion:
Emotion is the vibration that shows people’s attitudes toward
things and phenomena related to their needs and motives.
* Classification of emotion
Focus on analysing the 6 basic types of emotion as follows:
happy, miserable, fearful, angry, surprised, and scornful.
Skill is the application of the available knowledge and
experience to the reality to achieve an identified goal.
2.1.3. Emotion management skill
18.104.22.168. Emotion management
* Definition of emotion management
Emotion management is the process of identifying, controlling,
directing, and using our emotions affected by the situation in order to
help individuals master their own emotion.
* Distinction between emotion management and emotion
Emotion management and emotional intelligence are similar in
the way that they both refer to the appearance of emotion; people can
identify, control, direct, and use it. The content of these two concepts
has something in common.
However, there are still differences between emotion
management and emotional intelligence: emotional intelligence has a
wider range; it is a very popular psychological phenomenon like a
quality, a character, ability in everyday activities and communication
of human. Emotional intelligence is always present in individuals.
Emotion management is a process and it can be present or not.
22.214.171.124. Emotion management skill
* Definition of emotion management skill
Emotion management skill is the use of the available
knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct, and use
individual emotion when there is an impact to master our own
emotion in real activities.
* Component skills of emotion management skill
Based on the results of the above-mentioned studies, the
definition of emotion management skill, the author assumes that
emotion management skill consists of the following component
skills: emotion identifying skill; emotion controlling skill; emotion
directing skill; emotion using skill.
2.2. Emotion management skill of division-officer training
cadets Military Officer Training Colleges
2.2.1. An overview of Military Officer Training Colleges and the
characteristics of division-officer training cadets at Military Officer
126.96.36.199. An overview of Military Officer Training Colleges in
the Vietnam People’s Army
188.8.131.52. The characteristics of division-officer training cadets at
Military Officer Training Colleges
* Cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
* The characteristics of cadets at Military Officer Training
- The bio-psychological characteristics.
- The socio-psychological characteristics.
* The characteristic features of the studying and training of
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
- Cadets are carefully selected based on the entrance exam result,
and they study and train in a pedagogical and military environment in
accordance with the regulations and disciplines in the Army.
- The studying and training activities of the cadets are intense
in the aspects of the mentality and physicality due to the strict
requirements of the future career.
- The studying and training activities of the cadets at Military
Officer Training Colleges are well organized in a pedagogical and
2.2.2. Emotion management of division-officer training
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
* Emotion of division-officer training cadets
Emotion of division-officer training cadets is the vibrations
that show their attitudes to things and phenomena related to their
needs and motives.
* Definition of emotion management of division-officer
Emotion management of division-officer training cadets is the
process of identifying, controlling, directing, and using their emotions to
help them master their own emotions during the studying process and
meet the communicative goal, and the school requirements.
2.2.3. Emotion management skill of division-officer training
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
184.108.40.206. Definition of emotion management skill of divisionofficer training cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
Emotion management skill of cadets at Military Officer Training
Colleges is the use their knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct
and use their own emotion when being affected in order to help them master
their own emotions during the process of studying, training, living and
communicating to meet the training goal and requirement of the schools.
220.127.116.11. Expression of the emotion management skill of the
division-officer training cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
- The emotion identifying skill of the cadets
- The emotion controlling skill of the cadets
- The emotion monitoring skill of the cadets
- The emotion using skill of the cadets
management skill of division-offi cer training
cadets at Military Offi cer Training Colleges
2.3.1. Objective factors: The impact of socio-economic
condition; The cultural pedagogical military environment; The aims,
the requirements and the content of the training programme; The
qualities, the abilities, the methods, the styles of cadres and lecturers;
The pressure of the study and examination.
2.3.2. Subjective factors: The knowledge and experience of the
cadets; the temper of the cadets; the health and the spirit of the
cadets; the methods of studying and training of the cadets; the
military career tendency of the cadets.
Summary of chapter 2
In this thesis, emotion management skill of the cadets at
Military Officer Training Colleges is defined as the use of their
knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct, and use their
emotion when being affected to help cadets master their own emotion
during the process of learning, training, living, communicating to
meet the training goal and requirement of the schools.
Emotion management skill of the cadets at Military Officer
Training Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army consists of four
component skills: emotion identifying skill; emotion controlling skill;
emotion monitoring skill; emotion using skill. Many factors, including
subjective factors as well as objective factors, affect emotion management
skill of the cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges. The effects of
these factors on the emotion management skill of the cadets at Military
Officer Training Colleges are different from each other.
RESEARCH ORGANIZING AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research organizing
3.1.1. Research units
The research was carried out in 4 units: The Army OfficersTraining College No1, The Political Officers-Training College, The
Engineering Officers-Training College, and The Military OfficersTraining College of Telecommunication from 2015 to 2018.
3.1.2. The object of the study
The object of the study consists of 396 cadets, 127 cadres and
3.1.3. The content of the study
Study the reasoning problems about emotion management skill
in general and the emotion management skill of cadets in particular.
Survey, evaluate the real situation of the emotion management
skill of the cadets at military officer training colleges today. Based on
the results of the study, propose some pedagogical-psychological
measures to develop the emotion management skill for cadets at
military officer training colleges.
Test the effect of the measures developing the degree of the emotional
management skill of the cadets at military officer training colleges.
3.1.4. The stages of the study
Stage 1: Study the theories and do a preliminary survey,
complete the detailed thesis proposal. Stage 2: Survey the situation,
conduct impact experiments, and write the contents of the thesis.
Stage 3: Check the survey statistics and continue to supplement the
thesis content. Stage 4: Complete the thesis.
3.2. Criteria for evaluating the degree of emotion
management skill of cadets at military officer training colleges
Criteria for evaluating the degree of emotion management skill
of cadets are based on the expressions of the component skills of
emotion management skill of the cadets.
3.3. Research methodology
In this thesis, the author has combined different methodologies
to study as follows: document study, survey questionnaire,
observation, in-depth interview, group discussion, experimental
method, expert method and the data analysis method by using SPSS
20,0 software: analysis using descriptive statistics, analysis using
inference statistics, and factor analysis.
Summary of chapter 3
To study the situation of emotion management skill of
cadets at military officer training colleges in the Army, the author
carefully prepared the studying process and used various studying
instruments. Therefore, during the process of surveying the
situation and conducting the experiment, a lot of difficulties arisen
subjectively or objectively were limited. A smooth combination of
different study methodologies promoted their effect, helping to
measure the situation of emotion management skill of cadets
accurately. The findings were qualitatively authentic, valuable,
help to make clear the quantitative findings collected and analysed
by using SPSS 20.0 software. The measurements used in the thesis
have been adapted to the civilian environment and are now applied
to the military environment, these measurements have been
supplemented with the characteristics of the cadets at military