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VIII. Genetic Adaptation to Environment

VIII. Genetic Adaptation to Environment

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ments carried out by Chisci and Lessells (1960) support the hypothesis that

varieties of local origin possess advantages which, other things being equal, result

in the production of higher yields than those of outside varieties.

Because of the great variability of plants within cultivars, it may even be

unnecessary in many cases to seek unadapted genetic material outside the local

region to obtain improved types. Mixtures of contrasting types are unlikely to be

complementary, since the spaces previously occupied by plants that have died

are taken by weeds rather than by the remaining alfalfa plants (Jackobs and

Miller, 1973). The decline in stand density is for the most part an irreversible

process, and cultural practices enabling self-seeding or interseeding would perhaps enhance production more than would any other single factor, not only by

preventing stand deterioration but also by propagating genotypes most adapted

to the environment.

Various studies have illustrated the fact that genotypic variation is adequate

for selection of specific characters. However, it has yet to be convincingly

demonstrated that improvement in any one physiological character is not likely

to be accompanied by compensatory changes that would negate any net effect

on productivity. As examples, selection for higher phosphorus and lower calcium

would probably at the same time increase potassium and reduce magnesium

levels (HiU and Jung, 1975); fewer and thicker shoots might reduce shoot

mortality, but could also result in more highly lignified herbage of lower

digestibility; and, despite between-leaf relationships, SLW is poorly related to

plant yield (Hart et al., 1972; Porter and Reynolds, 1975; Song and Walton,


An integrated program of worldwide collection, recombination, and mild

selection has been advocated by Hanson et al. (1972) to conserve and improve

germplasm resources. On a more modest scale, many promising advances are

already being made. Selective modification toward acclimatization has resulted

in the development of a strain with exceptional tolerance to subarctic conditions

(Klebesadel, 1971). T. J. Smith (1971) in a single cycle of natural selection

under field conditions in a warm, humid region of Virginia obtained experimental strains from the interpollinated seed of “DU h i t s ” plants equal in

persistence to those of the control variety “Williamsburg.” Hanson et al. (1972)

used recurrent phenotypic selection for vigor and general appearance in developing multiple pest resistance. After three cycles of selection in the field,

Frosheiser and Barnes (1973) obtained a 63% increase in resistance to Phytophthora megasperma, correlated with forage and root production in wet soils.

Simpson (1974) has shown how the genetic potential to produce roots in

low-calcium soils may be sought within cultivars by using clones propagated

from cuttings which are grown in soils whose calcium availability gradually

declines with depth.



Although a better understanding of environmental effects is essential for the

intelligent and economically viable upgrading of agricultural practices and techniques, our ability to modify the environment as a means of obtaining more

favorable conditions for plant growth is limited and likely to become increasingly costly. On the other hand, our ability to modify plants to suit new

environments, with the minimum expenditure of resources, may offer considerable opportunity.


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