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XI. Economics of Weed Control in Upland Rice

XI. Economics of Weed Control in Upland Rice

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S . SANKARAN AND S. K. DE DATTA



A postemergence application of propanil at 2.0 or 4.0 kg a.i./ha (Doming0

and Palis, 1966; Raghavulu and Sree Ramamurthy, 1973) followed by either

2,4-D (Akhanda, 1966; Chakraborty and Majumdar, 1973) or one hoeing

and weeding (Kolhe and Mittra, 1981) gave higher net returns than conventional hand weeding.

A combination of 1.0 kg a.i. 2,4-D sodium salt/ha and MCPA followed by

one hoeing and weeding (IRRI, 1967; Misra and Roy, 1970; Singh and Khan,

1972) gave a higher net return than the weed-free check in upland rice.

The choice of alternative weed control methods can be based on the

relative cost of labor versus chemicals. The daily wage rate in a given area and

the approximate time required for one hand weeding determine the cost per

hectare of hand weeding. This cost can be compared to the cost of herbicides

to determine the economical choice.

Hand weeding is still the major form of weed control in upland rice in

Indonesia, Bangladesh, and India, where wage rates are low (De Datta and

Barker, 1977). Considering the labor-hours saved and the returns from

herbicide use, herbicides may soon be adopted in many areas.



XII. CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS

Many research papers are available on upland rice weeds and their

management in different countries and under different ecological conditions.

However, there are still questions the answers to which will provide greater

understanding of the ecophysiology of upland weeds and permit formulation

of appropriate control measures. Certain areas should be studied.

1. Weed competition will be greatly minimized by methods to improve

crop establishment of upland rice by refining seeding methods and identifying

other limiting 'factors. Preplant weed control should be developed to aid

stand establishment and moisture utilization.

2. Studies should evaluate the biology, ecology, and control of weeds in

specific upland rice regions. Survival mechanisms of weeds, including adaptation to soil disturbance, and crop competition must be examined to develop

cultural practices to minimize weed competition. Vegetation analyses are

necessary to understand why changes in weed population occur with time

and different management practices.

3. Understanding the effect on the plant environment of continuous use of

a single weed control method and the formulation of effective controls for

resistant weed ecotypes that will develop because of such continuous

practices.



WEEDS AND WEED MANAGEMENT



329



4. Evaluation of the allelopathic effects of one weed species on another as a

control measure and as a possible means of improving crop establishment

and minimizing weed competition.

5. Use of nonchemical weed control practices, including cropping systems,

competitive cultivars, and improved crop rotations.

6 . Evaluation of the possibility of controlling weeds by soil stresses created

by tillage, dryness, wetting, and nutrient toxicity or deficiency.

7. Development of integrated weed management strategies that combine

chemical and nonchemical methods for controlling annual and perennial

weeds.

8. Development of a range of weed control practices that will fit different

target yields and the resources and cultural practices of upland rice farming

systems ranging from subsistence to highly mechanized.

9. Evaluation of herbicide technologies, such as controlled droplet applicators, wiper applicators, herbicide-fertilizer combinations, and herbicideseed combinations, and their applicability to different upland rice farming

systems.

10. Selecting rices from upland rice breeding programs for competitive

abilities such as rapid growth, abundant leaves and leaf area, and bushy

growth habits.

11. Breeding for cultivars tolerant to selected herbicides.

12. Information is needed on herbicide-moisture relationships, with special reference to specific, hard-to-control weeds such as C. rotundus and I.

cylindrica.

13. Research programs should be initiated to emphasize biological control

of weeds using insects and pathogens.

In deveIoping weed control research programs for upland rice, it is

important to look for herbicides that are efficient and safe and that can be

integrated with existing control methods. Recently, Zimdahl (1984) pointed

out that weed research should be conducted with a thorough understanding

of the farming system so that weed control methods, including chemical

techniques, can be developed to fit the system. Research should emphasize

integrating herbicides when they are compatible with the farming system and

should not neglect other weed control methods. Furthermore, proposed

changes in any production system must be compatible with existing patterns

of social organization and economic policies, or they may fail.

The challenge for weed scientists and agronomists working on upland rice

is to develop an integrated production system that includes appropriate

chemical and cultural practices, minimizes risks, maximizes profits, and is

widely adaptable.



330



S. SANKARAN AND S. K. DE DATTA

APPENDIX:

COMMON NAMES AND CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF HERBICIDES



~



~



Common name

Alachlor

Atrazine

Bentazon

Butachlor

Butralin

CDMU

Chloramben

2,4-D

Dichlobenil

Dichlormate

Diclofop-methyl

Dimethametryn

Dinitramine

EPTC

Fluazifop-buty 1

Fluorodifen

MCPA

MCPB

Metobromuron

MSMA

Molinate

Neburon

Nitrofen

Oryzalin

Oxadiazon

Oxyfluorfen

Paraquat

Pendimethalin

Piperophos

Prometryn

Propanil

Swep

2,4,5-T

Terbutryn

Thiobencarb

Trifluralin



Chemical formula



2-Chloro-2‘,6-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide

2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamine-striazine

3-Isopropyl-lH-2,1.3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one

2,2-dioxide

N-(Butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2’,6‘-diethylacetanilide

4-(1,l-Dimethylethyl)-N-( 1-methylpropyl)-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine

3-(p-Chlorophenyl)-1,l-dimethylurea

3-Amino-2,s-dichlorobenzoic acid

(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)aceticacid

2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile

3,4-Dichlorobenzyl methylcarbamate

Methyl 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]propionate

2 4 1,2-Dimethylpropylamino)-4-ethylamino-6-methylthio-l,3,S-triazine

N’,N’-Diethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl-~-pheny~enediamine

S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate

Butyl 2-[4-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridinyloxy)phenoxy]propionate

p-Nitrophenyl a,a,cr-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl

ether

(4-Chloro-o-tolyloxy)acetic acid

4-(Chloro-o-tolyloxy)butyric acid

3-(p-Bromophenyl)-1-methoxy-I-methylurea

Methylarsonic acid

S-Ethyl hexahydro- 1H-azepine-1-carbothioate



3-(3,4-DichlorophenyI)-l-methyI-n-butylurea

2,4-Dichlorophenyl p-nitrophenyl ether

3,s-Dini tro-N4,N4-dipropylsulfanilamide

2-tert-Butyl-4-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-Az-1,3,4-oxadiazolin5-one

2-Chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene

l,l’-Dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium

N-( 1-Ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dini

trobenzenamine

S-2-Methyl-piperidinocarbonyl-methyl-O,O-dipropyl phosphorodithioate

2,4-Bis(isopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine

3’,4’-Dichloropropionanilide

Methyl 3,4-dichlorocarbanilate

(2,4,S-Trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid

2-(tert-Butylamino)-4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-~-triazine

S-(4-Chlorophenyl)methyl diethylcarbamothioate

a,a,a-Trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N-N-dipropyl-p-toluidine



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