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VIII. General Conclusions and Challenges

VIII. General Conclusions and Challenges

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important for P, as linseed and fiber flax are often reported to respond poorly to applied P compared with other species. Part of the reason for the poor

response is apparently due to placing the fertilizer either too close to the seed,

causing early damage (Nyborg and Hennig, 1969), or too far away from the

seeds and thus inaccessible to the roots during early growth (Sadler, 1980;

Sadler and Bailey, 1981). Flax roots explore only a very limited volume of soil

during the first few weeks after germination (Sadler 1980), and knowledge of

the appropriate rates and method of application of P fertilizer is thus important. In the longer term, selection for better early root geometry may be

worth investigating to improve nutrient uptake and crop performance. At the

physiological level, some knowledge of the kinetics of nutrient uptake from

the soil solution appears necessary in order to understand better nutrient

responses of flax compared with other crop species.

To improve the efficiency of fertilizer application, research is required on

phenological and physiological responses of flax to nutrient stresses. This

should lead to an understanding of the effects of these stresses on yield components and help identify growth stages during which yield components are

particularly sensitive to nutrient deprivation. Such an approach will also

highlight the crop’s nutrient requirements at different growth stages to

achieve maximum yield, thus providing guidelines for the rational application of fertilizer to flax, especially N to irrigated crops.

Little attention has been paid to the internal nutrient requirements of flax

to produce optimum yields and quality, and there is a paucity of data on

which to base diagnostic indices. There is a need to study the distribution

patterns of minerals within the flax plant during development to determine

how these are modified by nutrient supply and to investigate the extent to

which nutrients are redistributed from vegetative organs to developing capsules. Some information is already available for macronutrients but there is

little for the micronutrients. This information is essential for the development of soundly based diagnostic criteria. Further, there are remarkably

few published critical values for flax, to indicate incipient deficiency of any

nutrient, or threshold values, to indicate toxicities.

Little work has been reported on the role of S in the production of flax.

Some attention to this appears to be warranted for linseed because of the

importance of S in maintaining oil yield and meal protein quality in other

oilseed crops (Randall and Wrigley, 1986) and the expectation that S deficiency may become more widespread in the future as a consequence of the

increasing use of high-analysis P fertilizers which lack the adventitious S of

single superphosphate.

The ability of flax to tolerate acid soil conditions requires better definition. There are some reports of excess Mn limiting growth of flax in the

field, but little is known of the degree of tolerance of commonly used

cultivars to toxicities of Mn or Al.



In many crops, considerable genetic diversity in the efficiency of nutrient

uptake or utilization has been revealed, and plant breeding and selection

programs have resulted in cultivars with superior nutritional characteristics.

For example, cultivars of soybean resistant to the chlorosis associated with

Fe deficiency have been released (Fehr, 1982), and Al-tolerant wheat

varieties have resulted from selection on acid soils (Silva, 1976). In view of

the lack of knowledge of the degree of genetic diversity in nutrient use efficiency and other nutritional characteristics of fiber flax and linseed, it is

perhaps premature to suggest a plant breeding approach to overcome some

of their more common nutritional problems. However, it should be worthwhile to investigate existing cultivars for variation in resistance to Fe and

Zn deficiencies and to Mn and A1 toxicities as a first step in evaluating such

a solution.


We thank Mrs. M. Onorato for preparing the typescript, and Professor J. T. Moraghan for

his helpful comments on a draft of this review.


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