Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
VIII. Soil As and Microorganisms

VIII. Soil As and Microorganisms

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang



Industrial Sources



Arsenical Herbicides

and Pesticldes




I I Consumptton


Oxygen present





Oxygen absent





Figure 7 Soil-air cycle (WHO, 198 1; reprinted by permission of the publisher).

63, and 32 mg kg- for Cu, Cr, As, and B, respectively) were considerably lower

than those present in Bisessar's (1982) work.

Considerable variation in tolerance to As compounds applied to the soil has been

shown by the soil microflora. Maliszewska et al. (1985) reported that As"' compounds were more toxic than As" compounds to microorganisms important to

maintaining soil fertility.Arsenite compounds were applied at 500, 1500,and 3000

mg As kg- I and As" compounds at 1000,5000, and 10,000 mg As kg- to sandy

and alluvial soils. The influence of As"' and As" compounds on the soil microflora differed, depending on the microflora and the soil type. In sandy soil, As"' depressed the growth of bacteria, whereas As" stimulated their proliferation. Overall, both As compounds had little effect on the development of actinomycetes and

fungi flora and suppressed the growth of Azotobacter sp.

Maliszewska et al. (1985) also measured a decrease of approximately 30% in

dehydrogenase activity in the soils. The decrease in activity was greatest in the

sandy soil and with the application of As"'. Dehydrogenase is an unspecific enzyme for assessing the effect of As compounds on the soil microflora; other authors have found that enzymes involved in more specific biochemical reactions are

inhibited by the addition of As to the soil environment. Tabatabai (1977) reported

that As"' greatly inhibited the urease activity of some soils at a concentration of

375 mg As"' kg- I , but the addition of As" at a similar concentration to the soil

had no effect on activity. Bardgett er al. (1 994) investigated microbial properties

Table VIII

Total As, Pb, Cd, and Cu Concentration and Counts of Sod Microflora Near a Secondary Pb SmelteP

Total heavy metal

concentration (mg kg-I)






Total no. of colonies




~ _ _ _ _ _ _

15 m

90 m

150 m

180 m

Control (1000 m




























in log soil


_ _ _ _ _ ~






“Bisessar, 1982; reprinted with kind permission from Kluwer Academic Publishers.




















of the surface (0-50 mm) of a pasture soil contaminated by runoff by preserving

liquor runoff from an adjacent timber-treatment plant. Total concentrations of Cr,

Cu, and As ranged from 86 to 1260,70 to 1233, and 79 to 1265 mg kg-', respectively. They found no significant relationship between soil As, Cu, and Cr concentrations and urease activity, whereas a significant relationship was observed between As, Cu, and Cr (? values = As, 0.923; Cu, 0.933; Cr, 0.872) and a decline

in sulphatase activity. However, many factors may influence the inhibitory effect

of metals on the soil microflora, with soil type being an important factor in determining the bioavailability of the metals (Maliszewska et al., 1985).



The biotransformation of As in soils has been recognized for many years. Two

microbial processes, oxidation and reduction, are of current interest because of

their possible application for bioremediation of contaminated soil. A number of review articles have discussed As and its transformation in various environments

(Cullen and Reimer, 1989; Ehrlich, 1996), and these articles provide a more in

depth review of the subject than is provided here.

Bacterial oxidation was first identified by Green in 1918 wh en a bacterium from

a cattle-dipping fluid was isolated. Many other heterotrophic As"' oxidizing bacteria have since been characterized, with many bacterium classified as Bacillus or

Pseudomonas spp. Studies by Osborne and Ehrlich (1976) reported that Alcaligenesfaecalis was able to oxidize As"' to As", although it was not clear if their

organism derived energy from this process. The oxidation of reduced As species

has been less widely studied than the processes of microbial reduction of As.

Various bacteria, fungi, and algae organisms that are able to reduce As compounds have been identified. The reduction of AsV to As"' has been reported to be

carried out by Pseudomonasjuorescens under anaerobic conditions, wine yeast,

rumen bacteria, and cyanobacteria (Cullen and Reimer, 1989). Cheng and Focht

( 1979) have also identified that Pseudornonas and Alcaligenes were able to produce arsine gas directly from As" solutions in glucose and urea-enriched soils under anaerobic conditions. The ability of organisms to reduce inorganic As species

directly has only been reported so far for bacteria. The bacterial methylation of inorganic As has been extensively studied in methanogenic bacteria. Methanogenic

bacteria are a morphologically diverse group that produce methane as their primary metabolic end product under anaerobic conditions (Tamaki and Frankenberger, 1992). McBride and Wolfe (1971) reported that cell extracts of whole cells

of the Methanobacterium strain MOH, growing anaerobically, reduced and methylated As" to dimethylarsine. Anaerobic biomethylation of As only proceeds to dimethylarsine, which is stable in the absence of 0, but is rapidly oxidized under

aerobic conditions (Cullen and Reimer, 1989). The pathway of As" methylation



initially involves the reduction of AsVto As"', with the subsequent methylation of

As"' to dimethylarsine by coenzyme M (Frankenberger and Losi, 1995).

In addition to bacteria, several fungi species have the ability to reduce As

species. It is well known that fungi and algae are able to methylate As. Toxic

trimethylarsine gas is volatilized, and the liberalization of this gas by molds growing on wallpaper decorated with As pigments led to a number of poisoning incidents in the 1800s in England and Germany (Challenger, 1945). Cox and Alexander (1973a) reported that three fungal species, Candida humicola, Gliocladium

roseurn, and Penicilliurn sp. were capable of transforming methylarsonic and dimethylarsonic acids to trimethylarsine. Further work by Cox and Alexander

(1973b) showed that other anions, notably phosphate, inhibited the formation of

trimethylarsine from inorganic As and methylarsonic acid.

The extent to which microbial activity is involved in the transformation and

movement of As in the soil is difficult to quantify. Woolson (1977) detected the generation of alkyarsines, notably dimethyarsine and trimethylarsine, in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the laboratory. Furthermore, the rate of formation of

volatile compounds from the three As compounds applied to the soil (74As-sodium

arsenate, I4C-MSMA, and 14C-cacodylicacid) was fastest under aerobic conditions, with the nature of the As compounds influencing the rate of formation. Hassler el al. (1984) suggested that, in addition to methylating As compounds, microbiological mobilization of As may occur under certain soil conditions. Woolson and

Kearney (1973) found that the loss of 14C-cacodylicacid, applied to a range of soils

and incubated over several months, was influenced by soil type, concentration of

cacodylic acid applied, and soil moisture levels. Losses were attributed to the production of methylarsines and were greatest at the higher rates of cacodylic applied

(100 mg As kg-I) in anaerobic conditions and in sandy soils.

Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of microbial transformations of As species. In many instances, microbial influences on As sorption and

desorption processes have been largely ignored in laboratory studies. Under shortterm laboratory studies and with previously uncontaminated soils, the microorganisms may have little influence on sorption processes in soils. However, there

may be important implications for long-term studies, or where the soil microflora

and microfauna have been predisposed to As when studying As sorption-desorption processes in laboratory situations.


Arsenic is widely distributed in nature, with traces of As in the soil almost universal. The behavior of As in the soil is dominated by As speciation. In soil solutions the inorganic As species predominate, either as AsV or As"'. Under moderately oxidizing conditions (> + 100 mV) AsV will predominate, whereas under



moderately reducing conditions As111will predominate. The conversion of As from

one oxidation state to another in soils is also affected by other soil parameters, including pH and microbial activity. The importance of microbial activity in controlling As species present in soil environments is well acknowledged, but the

pathways and kinetics of the microbial processes are not well understood.

An understanding of the physiochemical behavior of As in the soil is important

for quantifying the persistence and bioavailability of As in the environment. The

sorption of As onto soil surfaces plays an important role in mediating the availability of As in the environment. Iron, Al, and to a lesser extent Mn oxides are important soil constituents in controlling soil solution concentrations of As. Soil pH

has a major influence on the availability of As. Arsenic is apolyprotic acid, and pH

has a major influence on the valence charge of the As ion in soil solution and hence

on the As adsorbed.

In general, bioaccumulation of As to hazardous levels for human and animal

consumption in the edible portions of plants seldom occurs because of the phytotoxic effects before such hazardous levels are reached. Plants accumulate the highest concentrations of As in plant roots. Unlike other elements such as P, As is not

generally translocated to other parts of the plant. However, some plant species have

been found to translocate As to a greater extent than others.

Future research of As in soils is needed to understand factors controlling the nature of As species in the soil solution, as well as the role of microbes in controlling As speciation. Although adsorption processes have been well studied, further

work is needed in understanding desorption processes and the factors that influence the kinetics of these processes. Scope also exists for studies on both plant and

microbial uptake of As and the possible use of plants as low-cost, long-term means

of remediation of As-contaminated sites.


We would like to thank Primary Industries for South Australia and the Co-operative Research Centre for Soil and Land Management for their support.


Adriano, D. C.. Page, A. L.. E1seewi.A. A., Chang. A. C.. and Straughan, I. (1980). Utilization and disposal of fly ash and other residues in terristrial ecosystems: Areview. J. Environ. Quol. 9,333-344.

Ajwa, H. A,, and Tabatabai, M. A. (1995). Metal-induced sulfate adsorption by soils: I. Effect of pH

and ionic strength. Soil Sci. 159,3242.

Anastasia, E B., and Kender, W. J. (1973). The influence of soil arsenic on the growth of lowbeny bush.

J. Environ. Quol. 2,335-337.

Anderson, M. A,, and Malotky, D. T. (1979). The adsorption of protolizable anions on hydrous oxides

at the isoelectric pH. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 72,413427.



Anderson, M. A., Ferguson, J. F., and Gavis. J. (1976). Arsenate adsorption on amorphous aluminium

hydroxide. J. Colloid Inferface Sci. 54,391-399.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1995). “Imports of arsenic by all countries and states.” Adelaide, Australia.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC). (1992). “Australian

and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites.”Aust.

Govt. Pub. Service, Canberra.

Bardgett, R. D., Speir, T. W., Ross, D. J., Yeates, G. W., and Kettles, H. A. (1994). Impact of pasture

contamination by copper, chromium, and arsenic timber preservative on soil microbial properties

and nematodes. Biol. Fen. Soils. 18,7 1-79.

Barrow, N. J. (1974). On the displacement of adsorbed anions from soil: 2. Displacement of phosphate

by arsenate. Soil Sci. 117,28-33.

Barrow, N. J. (1983). A mechanistic model for describing the sorption and desorption of phosphate by

soil. J. Soil Sci. 34,733-750.

Barrow, N. J. (1984). Modelling the effects of pH on phosphate sorption by soils. J . Soil Sci. 35,


Barrow, J., Bowden, J. W., Posner. A. M., and Quirk, J. P. (1980). Describing the effects of electrolyte

on adsorption of phosphate by a variable charge surface. Aust. J. Soil Res. 18,395-404.

Barzi, F., Naidu, R., and McLaughlin, M. J. (1996). Contaminants and the Australian soil environment.

In “Contaminants and the Australian Soil Environment in the Australasia-Pacific Region” (Naidu

et al., eds.), pp. 45 1 4 8 4 . Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Belzile, N., and Tessier, A. (1990). Interactions between arsenic and iron oxyhydroxides in lacustrine

sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acfa 54, 103-109.

Bencko, V., and Symon, K. (1977). Health aspects of burning coal with a high arsenic content. Environ. Res. 13,378-385.

Beretka, J., and Nelson, P. (1994). The current state of utilisation of fly ash in Australia. In “Ash-A

Valuable Resource,” Vol. I , pp. 51-63. South African Coal Ash Association.

Bernard, D. W. (1983). Arsenic leachate from an abandoned smelter, Delero. Ontario, Canada. In “Papers of the International Conference on Groundwater and Man,” Vol. 2, pp. 29-41. Aust. Govt.

Pub. Service, Canberra.

Bhumbla, D. K., and Keefer. R. F. (1994). Arsenic mobilization and bioavailability in soils. In “Arsenic in the Environment, Part I: Cycling and Characterization.” (J. 0. Nriagu, ed.), pp. 51-82.

Wiley & Sons, New York.

Bisessar, S. (1982). Effects of heavy metals on microorganisms in soils near a secondary lead smelter.

Waf.Air Soil Poll. 17,305-308.

Bishop, R. F., and Chisholm, D. (1961). Arsenic accumulation in Annapolis Valley orchards. Can. J.

Soil Sci. 42,77-80.

Bohn, H. L. (1976). Arsenic Eh-pH diagram and comparisons to soil chemistry of phosphorus. Soil Sci.

121, 125-127.

Bolan, N. S., Syers, J. K., and Tillman, R. W. (1986). Ionic strength effects on surface charge and adsorption of phosphate and sulphate by soils. J . Soil Sci. 37,379-388.

Braman, R. S., and Foreback, C. C. (1973). Methylated forms of arsenic in the environment. Science

182,1247-1 249.

Brannon, J. M., and Patrick, Jr., W. H. (1987). Fixation, transformation, and mobilization of arsenic in

sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21,450459.

Carbonell Barrachiina, A., Burl6 Carbonell, F., and Mataix Beneyto, J. (1996). Kinetics of arsenite desorption in Spanish soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27, 3101-31 17.

Challenger, F. (1945). Biological methylation. Chem. Rev. 36,315-361. Cired in Hassler, R.A,, Klein,

D. A., and Meglen, R. R. (1984). Microbial contributions to soluble and volatile arsenic dynamics in retorted oil shale. J. Environ. Qual. 13,466470,



Charter, R. A., Tdbatabai, M. A., and Schafer, J. W. (1995).Arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and tungsten contents of fertilizers and phosphate rocks. Commun. Soil Sci. Planr Anal. 26, 30513062.

Chen, Jen Chen, and Lin. Li-Ju. (1994). Human carcinogenicity and atherogenicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic. In “Arsenic in the Environment: Part 11. Human Health and

Ecosystems Effects.” (J. 0. Nriagu, ed.), pp. 109-157. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Cheng, C. N., and Focht. D. D. (1979). Production of arsine and methylarsines in soil and in culture.

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38,494-498.

Chilvers, D. C.. and Peterson, P. J. (1987). Global cycling of arsenic. In “Lead, Mercury, Cadmium,

and Arsenic in the Environment” (T. C. Hutchinson and K. M. Meema. eds.), pp. 279-301. Wiley

& Sons, New York.

COX.D. P.. and Alexander, M. ( 1973a). Production of trimethylarsine gas from various arsenic compounds by three sewage fungi. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9 , 8 6 8 8 .

COX,D. P., and Alexander, M. (1973b). Effect of phosphate and other anions on trimethylarsine formation by Candida humicola. Appl. Microbiol. 25,408-413.

Crecelius, E. A., Johnson, C. J., and Hoffer, G. C. (1974).Contamination of soils near a copper smelter

by arsenic, antimony, and lead. Wat. Air Soil Poll. 3,337-342.

Cullen, W. R., and Reimer, K. J. (1989). Arsenic speciation in the environment. Chem. Rev. 89,

7 13-764.

Curtin, D., Syers, J. K., and Bolan, N. S. (1992). Phosphate sorption by soil in relation to exchangeable cation composition and pH. Ausr. J. Soil Rex 31, 137-149.

Das, D., Samanta, G., Mandal, B. K.. Chowdhury, T. R., Chanda, C. R., Chowdhury, P. R., Basu,

G. K.,and Chakraborti, D. (1996). Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

Environ. Geochem. and Health. 18,5-15.

Davenport, I. R., and Peryea, F. J. (1991). Phosphate fertilizers influence leaching of lead and arsenic

in soil contaminated with lead arsenate. War. Air Soil Poll. 57-58, 101-110.

Department of Mines. Perth, Western Australia. (1980). “Mineral Resources of Western Australia,”

p. 21. Dept. of Mines, Perth, Western Australia.

Deuel, L. E., and Swoboda, A. R. (1972). Arsenic solubility in a reduced environment. Soil Sci. Am.

Proc. 36,276-278.

DiGiano. F. A.. Baldauf, G., Frick, B., and Sontheimer, H. (1978). A simplified competitive equilibrium adsorption model. Chem. Eng. Sci. 33,1667-1673.

DIPMAC Report. (1992). “Report on the Management of Contaminated Waste at the Cattle Dip Sites

in North Eastern New South Wales.” NSW Gov.. Sydney, Australia.

Doelman, P., and Haanstra, L. (1984). Short-term and long-term effects of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc on soil microbial respiration in relation to abiotic soil facetors. Plant

and Soil 79,3 17-327.

Dowdy, R. H., and Volk, V. V. (1984). Movement of heavy metals in soils. In Chemical Mobility and

Reactivity in Soil Systems (0.W. Nelson et al., eds.), pp. 229-240. SSSA Special Publication

No. 1 1. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Dudas, M. J. (1987).Accumulation of native arsenic in acid sulphate soils in Alberta. Can. J. Soil Sci.


Dudas, M. J., and Pawluk, S. (1980). Natural abundances and mineralogical partitioning of trace elements in selected Alberta soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60,763-771.

Ehrlich, H. L. (1996). Geomicrobiology, 3rd ed., pp. 276-286. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Elkhatib, E. A,, Bennett, 0. L.. and Wright, R. J. (1984). Arsenite sorption and desorption in soils. Soil

Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1025-1 030.

Fendorf, S., Eick, M. J., Grossl, P., and Sparks, D. L. (1997). Arsenate and chromate retention mechanisms on goethite. I. Surface structure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31,315-320.

Fergus, I. F. (1955). A note on toxicity in some Queensland soils. Queensland J. Ag. Sci. 12,95-100.



Fordham, A. W., and Norrish, K. ( 1979).Arsenate-73 uptake by components of several acidic soils and

its implications for phosphate retention. Aust. J. Soil Res. 17,307-316.

Fordham, A. W., and Norrish, K. (1983). The nature of soil particles particularly those reacting with

arsenate in a series of chemically treated samples. Ausr. J. Soil Rex 21,455477.

Mass, M. J., McKinney, J. D., North, D. W., Ohanian, E. V., and

Fowle 111, J. R., Abemathy, C. 0..

Uthus, E. (1991). Arsenic research needs. Trace Subst. Environ. Healrh 25,257-271.

Fowler, B. A. (1977). Toxicology of Environmental Arsenic. In “Toxicology of Trace Elements.”

(R. A. Coyer and M. A. Mehlman, eds.), pp. 79-122. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Frank, R., Braun, H. E., Ishida, K., and Suda, P. (1976). Persistent organic and inorganic pesticide residues in orchard soils and vineyards of Southern Ontario. Can. J. Soil Sci. 56, 463484.

Frankenberger, W. T., and Losi, M. E. (1995). Applications of bioremediation in the cleanup of heavy

metals and metalloids. In “Bioremediation,” (H. D. Skipper and R. F. Turco, eds.), pp. 173-210.

SSSA Special Publication 43 Soil Sci. SOC.Am ., Madison, WI.

Freeman, J. S., and Rowell, D. L. (1981). The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate onto calcite.

J. Soil Sci. 3 2 , 7 5 4 4 .

Frost, R. R., and Griffin, R. A. (1977). Effect of pH on adsorption of arsenic and selenium from landfill leachate by clay minerals. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J. 41,53-57.

Garcia-Rodeja, I., and Gil-Sortes, F. (1995). Laboratory study of phosphate desorption kinetics in soils

of Galicia (N.W. Spain). Commun.Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 26,2023-2040.

Gilmor, J. T., and Wells, B. R. (1980). Residual effects of MSMA on sterility in rice cultivars. Agron.

J. 72, 10661067.

Goldberg, S. (1986). Chemical modelling of arsenate adsorption on aluminium and iron oxide minerals. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J . 50, 1154-1 157.

Goldberg, S. (1992). Use of surface complexation models in soil chemical systems. Adv. Agron. 47,


Goldberg, S., and Glaubig, R. A. (1988). Anion sorption on a calcareous montmorillonitic soil-Arsenic. Soil Sci. Am. J. 52, 1297-1300.

Goodroad, L. L., and Caldwell, A. C. (1979). Effects of phosphorus fertilizer and lime on the As. Cr,

Pb, and V content of soils and plants. J. Environ. Quul. 8,493496.

Green, H. H. (1918). Rep. Ver. Res. S.Afr 516 (1918), 595 Cired in Cullen, W. R., and Reimer, K. J.

(1989). Arsenic speciation in the environment. Chem. Rev. 89,713-764.

Grossl, P. R.,Eick, M. Sparks, D. L., Goldberg, S., and Ainsworth, C. C. (1997). Arsenate and chromate retention mechanisms on goethite. 2. Kinetic evaluation using a pressure-jump relaxation

technique. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31,32 1-326.

Gustafsson, J. P., and Jacks. G. (1995). Arsenic geochemistry in forest soil profiles as revealed by solid-phase studies. Appl. Geochem. 10,307-3 15.

Harrison, J. B., and Berkheiser, V. E. (1982). Anion interactions with freshly prepared hydrous iron oxides. Cluys Clay Mine,: 30,97-102.

Harter, R. D., and Naidu, R. (1995). Role of metal-organic complexation in metal sorption by soils.

Adv. Agmn. 55,219-264.

Hassler, R. A., Klein, D. A., and Meglen, R. R. (1984). Microbial contributions to soluble and volatile

arsenic dynamics in retorted oil shale. J. Environ. Qual. 13,466-470.

Hess, R. E., and Blanchar. R. W. (1976). Arsenic stability in contaminated soils. Soil Sci.SOC.Am. J.


Heylar, K. R., Munns, D. N., and Burau, R. G. (1976). Adsorption of phosphate by gibbsite. II. Formation of a surface complex involving divalent cations. J. Soil Sci. 27,35 1-323.

Hillier, G. (1980). Arsenic. In “Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review for 1978,” p. 50. Aust.

Govt. Publishing Service, Canberra.

Hiltbold, A. E., Hajek, B. F.. and Buchanan, G. A. (1974). Distribution of arsenic in soil profiles after

repeated applications of MSMA. Weed Sci. 22,272-275.



Hingston, F. J., Atkinson, R. J., Posner. A. M., and Quick, J. P. (1967). Specific adsorption of anions.

Narure 215, 1459-1461.

Hingston, F. J., Posner. A. M., and Quirk, J. P. (1971). Competitive adsorption of negatively charged

ligands on oxide surfaces. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52,334-342.

Hingston. F. J., Posner, A. M., and Quirk, J. P. (1972).Anion adsorption by goethite and gibbsite. I:

The role of the proton in determining adsorption envelopes. J. Soil Sci. 23, 177-191.

Jacobs, L. W., Syere, J. K., and Keeney. D.R. (1970).Arsenic sorption by soils. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. Proc.


Jiang, Q. Q.. and Singh, B. R. (1994).Effect of different forms and sources of arsenic on crop yield

and arsenic concentration. War. Air Soil Poll. 74,32 1-343.

Johnson, L. R., and Hiltbold, A. E. (1969). Arsenic content of soil and crops following use of

methanearsonate herbicides. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 33,279-282.

Kabata-Pendias, A., and Pendias, H. (1992). “Trace Elements in Soils and Plants,” 2nd ed. CRC Press,

Boca Raton, FL.

Kiss, A. M., Oncsik, M., Dombovari, J. Veres. S., and Acs, G. (1992). Dangers of arsenic drinking and

irrigation water to plants and humans. Antagonism of arsenic and magnesium. Acra Agron. Hung.


Leblanc, M., Achard, B., Ben Othman. D.,and Luck, J. M. ( I 996). Accumuulation of arsenic fron acidic

mine waters by ferruginous bacterial accretions (stromatolites).Appl. Geochem. 11,541-554.

Leonard, A. (1991).Arsenic. In “Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment. Occurrence, Analysis, and Biological Relevance,” 2nd ed. (E. Merian, in cooperation with Clarkson et al., eds.),

pp. 751-773. Weinheim, VCH.

Li, X., and Thornton, I. (1993).Arsenic, antimony, and bismuth in soil and pasture herbage in some

old metalliferous mining areas in England. Environ. Geochem. Health 15, 135-144.

Livesey, N. T., and Huang, P. M. (1981).Adsorption of arsenate by soils and its relation to selected

chemical properties and anions. Soil Sci. 131,88-94.

Loebenstein, J. R. (1993).Arsenic. In “Minerals Yearbook 1990,” pp. 167-170. US.Govt. Printing

Oftice, Washington, D.C.

Lookman, R., Freese, D.. Merckx, R., Vlassak, K., and Van Riemsdijk, W. H. (1995). Long-term kinetics of phosphate release from soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 1569-1575.

Lu, F, J. (1990). Blackfoot disease: Arsenic or humic acid? Lancer 336, 115-1 16.

Lumsdon, D. G., Fraser, A. R., Russell, J. D., and Livesey, N. T. (1984). New infrared band assignments for the arsenate ion adsorbed on synthetic goethite (a-FeOOH). J. Soil Sci. 35, 381-386.

Lund, U., and Fobian, A. (1991). Pollution of two soils by arsenic, chromium, and copper, Denmark.

Geodema 49,83-103.

MacLean, K. S., and Langille, W. M. (1981).Arsenic in orchard and potato soils and plant tissue. Plant

and Soil 61,4 1 3 4 1 8.

Maliszewska, W., Dec, S.. Wierzbicka, H., and Wozniakowska, A. (1985). The influence of various

heavy metal compounds on the development and activity of soil micro-organisms. Environ. Polhi.9,A.

:37, 195-2 15.

Malone, C. R . (1971). Responses of soil microorganisms to non-selective vegetation control in a fescue meadow. Soil B i d . Biochem. 3, 127-1 3 I .

Manful, G. A,, Verloo, M., and De Spiegeleer, F. (1989). Arsenate sorption by soils in relation to pH

and selected anions. Pedologie 39,5548.

Manning, B. A,, and Goldberg, S. (1996). Modeling competitive adsorption of arsenate with phosphate

and molybdate on oxide minerals. Soil Sci, Soc. Am. J. 60,121-131.

Marin, A. R., Masscheleyn, P. H., and Patrick Jr., W. H. (1992). The influence of chemical form and

concentration of arsenic on rice growth and tissue arsenic concentration. Plant and Soil 139,


Marin, A. R., Masscheleyn, P. H., and Patrick Jr., W. H. (1993). Soil redox-pH stability of arsenic specis

and its influence on arsenic uptake by rice. Plant and Soil 152,245-253.



Masscheleyn, P. H., Delaune, R. D., and Patrick Jr., W. H. (1991). Effect of redox potential and pH on

arsenic speciation and solubuility in a contaminated soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 1414-1418.

McBride, B. C., and Wolfe, R. S. (1971). Biosynthesis of dimethylarsine by Methnnobacrerium.

Biochem. 10,43124317.

McLaren, R. G.. Carey, P. L., Cameron, K. C., Adams, J. A,, and Sedcole. J. R. (1994). Effect of soil

properties and contact period on the leaching of copper, chromium, and arsenic through undisturbed soils. In “15th World Cong. Soil Sci.,” Vol. 3a, pp. 156-169. Intl. Soc. Soil Sci. and The

Mexican Soc. of Soil Sci., Acapulco, Mexico.

McMillan, M. G. (1988). Weed control in cotton: Agdex 151/640. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries.

Melamed, R., Jurinak, J. J., and Dudley, L. M. (1995). Effect of adsorbed phosphate on transport of arsenate through an oxisol. Soil Sci. Am. J. 59, 1289-1294.

Merry, R. H., Tiller, K. G., and Alston, A. M. (1983).Accumulation of copper, lead, and arsenic in some

Australian orchard soils. Aust. J. Soil Res. 21,549-561.

Merry, R. H., Tiller, K. G., and Alston, A. M. (1986). The effects of contamination of soil with copper,

lead, and arsenic on the growth and composition of plants. I. Effects of season, genotype, soil temperature, and fertilizers. Plant and Soil 91, 115-128.

Naidu. R., and Rengasamy, P. (1993). Ion interactions and constraints to plant nutrition in Australian

sodic soils. Aust. J. Soil Res., 31,801-819.

Naidu, R., Syers, J. K., Tillman, R. W., and Kirkman, J. H. (1990). Effect of liming and added phosphate on charge characteristics of acid soils. J. Soil Sci. 41, 157-164.

Naidu, R., Merry, R. H., Churchman, G. J., Wright, M. J., Murray, R. S., Fitzpatrick, R. W., and Zarcinas, B. A. (1993). Sodicity in South Australia-A review. Aust. J . Soil Res. 31,911-929.

Naidu. R., Bolan, N. S., Kookana, R. S., and Tiller, K. G. (1994). Ionic-strength and pH effects on the

sorption of cadmium and the surface charge of soils. Eur J. Soil Sci. 45,419429.

Naidu, R., Smith, J., Smith, L. H., Tiller, K. G., and McDougall, K. W. (1995). ArsenicDDT residues

at cattle tick contaminated sites: Preliminary investigation. CSIRO Division of Soils Technical

Report No. 60. Adelaide, Australia.

National Academy of Sciences. ( I 977). “Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants:

Arsenic.” National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Cited in Leonard, A. (1991).Arsenic. In

“Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment. Occurrence, Analysis. and Biological Relevance” 2nd ed. (E. Merian, in cooperation with Clarkson er al., eds.), pp. 751-773. Weinheim,


National Food Authority. (1993). “Australian Food Standards Code: March, 1993.” Australian Govt.

Pub. Service, Canberra.

National Research Council of Canada. (1978). “Effects of Arsenic in the Canadian Environment.”

NRCC no. I539 1. Ottawa, Canada.

Natush, D. F. S., Bauer, C. F.. Matusiewicz, H., Evans, C. A., Baker, J., Loh, A., Linton, R. W., and

Hopke, P. K. (1975). Characterization of trace metals in fly ash. In “International Conference on

Heavy Metals in the Environment.” Vol. 11. pp. 553-575. Toronto.

Nriagu, J. 0. (1994).Arsenic: Historical perspectives. I n “Arsenic in the Environment: Part 1. Cycling

and Characterization” (J. 0. Nriagu, ed.), pp. 3-15. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Nriagu, J. 0..and Pacyna, J. M. (1988). Quantitive assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water, and soils by trace metals. Nature 333, 134-139.

O’Neill, P. (1990).Arsenic. In “Heavy Metals in Soils” (B. J. Alloway, ed.), pp. 83-99. Blackie. London.

O’Neill, P. (1995). Arsenic. In “Heavy Metals in Soils,’’ 2nd ed. (B. J. Alloway, ed.), pp. 105-121.

Blackie, London.

Onken, B. M., and Hossner, L. R. (1995). Plant uptake and determination of arsenic species in soil solution under flooded conditions. J. Environ. Quaf. 24,373-38 l .

Osborne, F.H., and Ehrlich, H. L. (1976). Oxidation of arsenite by a soil isolate of alcaligenes. J . Appl.

Bacreriol. 41.295-305.



Oscarson. D. W., Huang, P. M., Defosse, C., and Herbillon. (1981). Oxidative power of Mn(IV) and

Fe(II1) oxides with respect to As(1II) in terristrial and aquatic environments. Nature 291, 50-51.

Oscatson, D. W.. Huang, P. M., Liaw, W. K., and Hammer, U. T. (1983a). Kinetics of oxidation of arsenite by various manganese dioxides. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J. 46,644-648.

Oscarson, D. W., Huang. P. M., and Hammer, U. T. (1983b).Oxidation and sorption of arsenite by manganese dioxide as influenced by surface coatings of iron and aluminium oxides and calcium carbonate. War.Air Soil Poll. 20,233-244.

Peryea. F. J. (1991). Phosphate induced release of arsenic from soils contaminated with lead arsenate.

Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J. 55, 1301-1306.

Peryea, F. J., and Creger, T. L. (1994). Vertical distribution of lead and arsenic in soils contaminated

with lead arsenate pesticide residues. War. Air Soil Poll. 78, 297-306.

Peterson, P. J., Benson, L. M.,and Porter, E. K. (1979). Biogeochemistry of arsenic on polluted sites

in SW England. In “Heavy Metals in the Environment, London, September 1979,”pp. 198-201,

CEP Consultants Ltd., Edinburgh.

Petito, C. T., and Beck, B. D. (1990). Evaluation of evidence of nonlinearities in the dose-response

curve for arsenic carcinogenesis. Trace Subsr. Environ. Health 24, 143-176.

Pierce, M. L., and Moore, C. B. (1980). Adsorption of arsenite and arsenate on amorphous iron hydroxide from dilute aqueous solutions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 14,214-216.

Pierzynski, G. M., Schnoor, J. L., Banks, M. K., Tracy, J. C., Licht, L. A., and Erickson, L. E. (1994).

Vegetative remediation at superfund sites. In “Mining and its Environmental Impact” (R.E. Hester and R. M.Harrison, eds.), pp. 49-69. Royal SOC.of Chem., Cambridge.

Pignatello, J. I.,and Xing, B. (1996). Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles. Environ. Sci. Tech. 30, 1-11.

Ragaini, R. C.. Ralston, H.R., and Robert, N. (1977). Environmental trace metal contamination in Kellog, Idaho, near a lead smelting complex. Environ. Sci. Tech. 11,773-781.

Rimstidt, J. D., Chermak, J. A,, and Gagen, P. M. (1994). Rates of reaction of galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite with Fe(1n) in acidic solutions. In “Environmental Geochemistry of

Sulfide Oxidation” (C. N. Alpers and D. W. Blowes, eds.), pp. 2-13. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C.

Rittle, K., Dreiver, J., and Colberg, P. (1995). Precipitation of arsenic during bacterial sulfate reduction. Geomicrobiol. J. 13, 1-1 1 .

Roy, W. R., Hassett, J. J., and Griffin, R. A. (1986).Competitive interactions of phosphate and molybdate on arsenate adsorption. Soil Sci. 142,203-210.

Sachs, R. M., and Michael, J. L. (1971).Comparative phytotoxicity among four arsenical herbicides.

Weed Sci. 19,558-564.

Sadiq, M. (1986). Solubility relationships of arsenic in calcareous soils and its uptake by corn. Plant

and Soil 91,241-248.

Sadiq, M., Zaidi, T. H.. and Mian, A. A. (1983).Environmental behaviour of arsenic in soils: Theoretical. Wat. Air Soil Poll. 20,369-377.

Sadler. R. Olszowy, H.. Shaw, G.. Biltoft, R., and Connell, D. (1994). Soil and water contamination by

arsenic from tannery waste. War. Air Soil Poll. 78, 189-198.

Schuthess, C. P., and Huang, C. P. (1990). Adsorption of heavy metals by silicon and aluminium surfaces on clay minerals. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J . 54,679-688.

Scott, M. J., and Morgan, J. J. (1995). Reactions of oxide surfaces. 1. Oxidation of As(II1) by synthetic birnessite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 1898-1905.

Sheppard, S. C. (1992).Summary of phytotoxic levels of soil arsenic. War. AirSoil Poll. 64,539-550.

Shiendorf, C., Rebhun, M., and Sheintuch, M. (1981). A Freundlich-type multicomponent isotherm. J.

Colloid Interface Sci. 79, 136-142.

Shuman, L. M. (1976). Zinc adsorption isotherms for soil clays with and without iron oxides removed.

Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J. 40,349-352.

Speir. T. W., August, J. A., and Feltham, C. W. (1992b). Assessment of the feasibility of using CCA

Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

VIII. Soil As and Microorganisms

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)