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2 Modeling CO[sub(2)] Transport to Sequestration Site

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Page numbers followed by e, f, and t indicate

equations, figures, and tables, respectively.

abiotic CCS, biotic CCS vs., 95–96

accelerated weathering of limestone

(AWL), 293–294

acid gas injections, 133

activated carbon, physical adsorption

and, 46

aerial hyperspectral imagery, 181

agricultural management practices,

terrestrial carbon sequestration

by, 134–135

agricultural residues, 312–313


carbon sequestration and, 339–340

CO2 conversion to fuel and, 202

contamination in open pond

cultivation, 349

cultivation conditions for, 343–346,


pH effect and, 344–345

strains effect, 342–343

algae-based carbon capture and

sequestration (CCS)

algae strains effect and, 342–343

background of, 339–340

carbon cycle and, 340–342, 341f

carbon dioxide concentration and

transportation effect and,


conclusions regarding, 359

cultivation conditions effect and,

343–346, 344t

economic analysis of, 356–357

function and conditions of, 348–350

limitations and future prospectives

for, 357–359

mixing effect and, 346–347

reactor effect and, 343

algae-based carbon capture and

sequestration (CCS)


biofuel production as, 353–355,


fertilizer recovery and

eutrophication control as,


greenhouse gas emission control as,

350–352, 351t

wastewater treatment as, 352–353

aliphatic polymers, 204–206

American National Standards Institute

(ANSI), 163

amine absorption, 40–41


as CO2 scrubbers, 242–243, 243f,

256–259, 257257t

organic, 242

sterically hindered, 244–245

aqueous ammonia, 41–42, 245–246

aqueous ethylenediamine (EDA), 243


deep saline, 132, 481

fresh water, 489

as storage options, 305–306

atmospheric gas measurements, 179–


atmospheric monitoring tools, 170

biochar/biochar technology. See also

soil carbon; soil carbon


benefits of, 421, 440–441

biochar feedstocks and yield and,

423–425, 424f, 424t

CCS and, 422, 423f, 443–444




chemistry of, 430–434, 431f, 432f

for climate change and mitigation,

435–437, 436t

composition of, 421–422

concerns related to, 443–446

crop productivity enhancement and,


explanation of, 421, 423

physical properties of, 430

production techniques and, 427–430

property optimization and, 434–435

research needs for, 446

soil quality improvement and, 437–

438, 444–446

sustainability and, 441–442

transformation principle and, 425–

427, 426f

biodiversity, soil C dynamics and, 79


algae-based carbon capture and

sequestration and

production of, 353–355,


carbon neutral, 210–211

production techniques for, 427

biological carbon pump (BCP), 457,


biological conversion of CO2, to fuel,

201–203, 202f

biological technologies

advanced biological processes for

CCS, 87–95, 94f

background of, 11, 65–66, 115, 319

biological processes for carbon

capture, 66–76, 67f, 69f

biological processes for CO2

sequestration, 76–87, 83f

biotic versus abiotic CCS, 95–96

carbon capture and, 11

summary, 96–98

biomass/biomass materials

agricultural and cropland residues,


carbon capture from, 67–72, 67f, 69f

energy crops, 311–312, 312t

explanation of, 309–310

food waste, 313

material categories, 310, 310t

wood and, 310–311, 310t

biomass burning, 77

biotic CCS, abiotic CCS vs., 95–96

biotic communities, 319–320

biotic sequestration

explanation of, 76

microbial processes, 81–87, 83f

ocean, 76–77

soil, 77–81

bisphenol-based engineering polymers,


black carbon. See biochar/biochar


brine, 293

BSCSP Kevin Dome Phase III

Development Test, 184–185

cap-and-trade policy, 509, 510t, 511t

capital investment, as CCS barrier, 17–

18, 18f

capture ready plants, 22

carbonaceous materials, as CO2

scrubbers, 251–252

carbonate-based CO2 absorption

systems, 43

carbonate mineral dissolution, 120–121

in ocean, 460–461

carbon-based energy, 7

carbon burial techniques

biomass, 309–313, 310t, 312t

carbon capture and storage of

industrial CO2, 304–309,

305t, 306f–308f (See also

carbon capture and storage


organic wastes, 313–319, 316t

carbon capture

biological processes for, 66–76, 67f,

69f, 113

from biomass, 67–72, 67f, 69f

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