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IV. Quantitative and qualitative data

IV. Quantitative and qualitative data

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Labels or names used to identify an

attribute of each element.

 Often be referred to as categorical data

 Nominal or ordinal scale of measurement

will be applied to summarize this kind of

data

 Usually nonnumeric data

 Therefore, appropriate statistical analyses

are rather limited in comparison with

those of quantitative data





Eye colors:

1.Brown 2.Black

 Marital status:

1. Single

2. Married

3. Divorced

4. Widowed





3.Blue



4.Green







Quantitative

Quantitative data

data can

can be

be described

described as

as

data

data under

under the

the numeric

numeric form.

form. It

It indicates

indicates

how

how many

many or

or how

how much:

much:



There are two types of quantitative data:

discrete data:



Continuous data:



- can measure

precisely.

- Only a finite number

of values is possible.

- Example:



- can not measured

precisely

- An infinite number of

values is possible.

- Example:



E.g.

(i)The number of students in a class

(ii)The number of correct answers in a

test

(iii)People’s height, weight; students’ GPA







Scales

Scales of

of measurement

measurement include:

include:

Nominal



Interval



Ordinal



Ratio



The

The scale

scale determines

determines the

the amount

amount of

of information

information

contained

contained in

in the

the data.

data.

The

The scale

scale indicates

indicates the

the data

data summarization

summarization and

and

statistical

statistical analyses

analyses that

that are

are most

most appropriate.

appropriate.







These scales of measurement gradually

develop, from the simplest form (nominal

scale) to the most sophisticated one

(interval/ratio scale).



Level of measurements



Measurements



Rankings

Ordered Categories



Categorical Codes

ID Numbers

Category

Names



Ratio/Interval Scale



Ordinal Scale



Nominal Scale



Highest Level

Complete Analysis



Higher Level

Mid-level Analysis



Lowest Level

Basic Analysis



 Nominal



Data

Data are

are labels

labels or

or names

names used

used to

to identify

identify an

an

attribute

attribute of

of the

the element.

element.



A

A nonnumeric

nonnumeric label

label or

or numeric

numeric code

code may

may be

be used

used

use



Students

Students of

of aa university

university are

are classified

classified by

by the

the

school

school in

in which

which they

they are

are enrolled

enrolled using

using aa

nonnumeric

nonnumeric label

label such

such as

as Business,

Business,

Humanities,

Humanities, Education,

Education, and

and so

so on.

on.

Alternatively,

Alternatively, aa numeric

numeric code

code could

could be

be used

used

for

for the

the school

school variable

variable (e.g.

(e.g. 11 denotes

denotes

Business,2

Business,2 denotes

denotes Humanities,

Humanities, 33 denotes

denotes

Education,

Education, and

and so

so on).

on).



Please

Please state

state which

which fuel

fuel are

are you

you using

using at

at

home?

home?

1.

1.Firewood

Firewood

2.

2.Coal

Coal

3.

3.Oil

Oil



4.

4.Gas

Gas



 Ordinal



The

The data

data have

have the

the properties

properties of

of nominal

nominal data

data aa

the

the order

order or

or rank

rank of

of the

the data

data is

is meaningful

meaningful..



A

A nonnumeric

nonnumeric label

label or

or numeric

numeric code

code may

may be

be used.

used.



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IV. Quantitative and qualitative data

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