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4: Creating a Reliable Clock

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Chapter 16



16.5







The Clock



The Same-State Problem



This brings us to a serious problem that you find on some hardware platforms.

We’re talking here about small embedded computers—something like a door

lock or a remote smart card reader. These typically consist of a small CPU, a

small amount of RAM, nonvolatile memory (e.g., flash) to store the program,

some communication channels, and further task-specific hardware.

You will notice that a real-time clock is often not included. Adding a realtime clock requires an extra chip, an oscillator crystal, and most importantly, a

battery. Apart from the extra cost, adding a battery complicates the device. You

now have to worry about the battery running out. Batteries can be sensitive to

temperature fluctuations, and the toxic chemicals in some batteries can even

lead to problems with shipping the hardware. For all of these reasons, many

small computers do not have a real-time clock.

Every time such a small computer is booted, it starts in exactly the same state.

It reads the same program from the same nonvolatile memory, initializes the

hardware, and starts operations. As this is a book about cryptography, we will

assume that some kind of cryptographic protocol is used in the communication

with other pieces of the system. But here is the problem: without a clock or

hardware random number generator, the embedded system will always repeat

the exact same behavior. Suppose the attacker waits until the gate computer

needs to open the gate because a truck needs to pass through. She reboots

the gate computer just before the gate needs to open (e.g., by interrupting

the power supply momentarily). After some initialization procedures, the

central system will command the gate computer to open the gate via the

communication channel. The next day, the attacker reboots the gate computer

again, and sends exactly the same messages as were sent the first time. As the

gate computer starts in the same state and sees the same inputs, it behaves the

same and opens the gate. This is bad. Note that it doesn’t matter if the gate

computer uses a time synchronization protocol. The protocol messages can be

replayed from yesterday, and the gate computer has no way of detecting this.

The same-state problem is not solved by any protocol.

A real-time clock chip solves this problem. The small embedded computer

can encrypt the current time with a fixed secret key to generate highly random

data. This data can in turn be used as a nonce in a cryptographic protocol. As

the real-time clock never repeats its state, the embedded computer can avoid

falling into the same-state trap.

A hardware random number generator has the same effect. It allows the

embedded computer to behave differently each time it is rebooted.

But if you don’t have a real-time clock or a random number generator, you

have a big problem. Sometimes you can fudge a bit and try to extract randomness from the clock skew between the local clock oscillator and the network



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timing or another oscillator, but it is very hard to extract enough entropy from

this within a short time. Taking 10 minutes to reboot an embedded computer

is simply unacceptable.

We’ve seen the same-state problem come up again and again. The upshot

is that the hardware has to change before you can do useful cryptography

on such small computers. This is hard to sell to managers, especially since

the hardware is often already in the field and they don’t want to hear that

something cannot be done. But there is no magic security sauce that you can

pour over an existing insecure system to make it secure. If you don’t design

the security into the system from the very start, you almost never get good

security.

There is one more possible solution, though it rarely works in practice.

Sometimes you can keep a reboot counter in the nonvolatile memory. Each

time the CPU reboots, it increments a counter in nonvolatile memory. This

solution is fraught with problems. Some nonvolatile memories can only be

updated a few thousand times, which makes the machine wear out if you keep

updating the counter. Some nonvolatile technologies require an additional

power voltage to be programmable, which is often not available in the field.

In some designs, you can only set bits in nonvolatile memory, or wipe all of

the nonvolatile memory. The latter option is not viable, as you’d lose the main

program of the machine. Even if all these problems are overcome, it is very

difficult to modify nonvolatile memory in such a way that the counter always

reliably increases even if the power supply to the machine can be interrupted

at arbitrary points in time. This nonvolatile counter option is only viable in

a minority of the cases we’ve seen. When it is feasible, such a counter could

be used as part of a prng. For example, the counter could be used with CTR

mode and an AES key to generate a stream of pseudorandom bits.



16.6



Time



While we’re discussing clocks, we have a few short comments on which time

base to choose. Stay away from local time. Local time is the time we use on our

watches and other clocks. The problem is, local time changes with daylight

saving time and time zone. These changes pose problems: some time values

are repeated each year when clocks are set back an hour in the fall, which

means that the time is no longer unique or monotonic. Some time values are

impossible when clocks are set forward an hour in the spring. Furthermore,

the exact date on which daylight saving time starts and stops is different in

different countries. In some countries, the rules change every few years, and

you don’t want to have to update your software for that. And people who

travel with laptops might change the time on their laptops to the local time,

which just makes these problems worse.



Chapter 16







The Clock



The obvious choice is to use UTC time. This is an international time standard

based on atomic clocks, and is widely used throughout the world. Any single

computer can keep track of the offset of local time with regard to UTC and use

this knowledge in interactions with the user.

There is one problem with UTC: the leap seconds. To keep UTC synchronized

with the Earth’s rotation, there is a leap second once every few years or so. So

far, all leap seconds have been extra seconds; there is a particular minute that

gets 61 seconds. It is also theoretically possible to have a missing second. It all

depends on the rotation of the Earth. The problem for computers is that the

leap seconds are unpredictable. Ignoring leap seconds leads to inaccuracies in

measuring time intervals across a leap second. This is not really a cryptographic

problem, but if you want to make a good clock, you might as well do it right.

All computer software always assumes that each minute has 60 seconds. If

you synchronize directly to a real UTC clock, the insertion of a leap second can

lead to problems. Most likely this results in your internal clock repeating itself

for one second. It is a minor problem, but again, it destroys the uniqueness

and monotonicity of time values.

For most applications, the exact synchronization of the clock is less

important than the monotonicity and uniqueness of the time stamps. As

long as you make sure the clock never jumps backwards at a leap second, it

doesn’t matter how you solve this problem.



16.7



Closing Recommendations



Unfortunately, we have no ideal solution for you. Creating a reliable clock is

very tricky, especially in a cryptographic setting where you assume there are

malicious attackers. The best solution depends on your local situation. Our

recommendations, therefore, are to be aware there are potential security issues

associated with the use of a clock, minimize reliance on the clock whenever

possible, and be cautious. And again, the most important thing is generally

the monotonicity and uniqueness of the time stamps.



16.8



Exercises



Exercise 16.1 Some computers use NTP at boot, or at regular intervals. Turn

off NTP for one week on your computer. Write a program that at regular

intervals (at least once every two hours) records both the true time and the

time reported by your computer. Let t0 be the initial true time at the start of

your experiment. For each time measurement pair, plot the true time minus t0

on the horizontal axis of a graph and plot your computer’s time minus true



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time on the vertical axis. How different is your computer’s clock from true

time after one week? Does your graph tell you anything else?

Exercise 16.2 Repeat exercise 16.1, but this time for a collection of five

different computers.

Exercise 16.3 Find a new product or system that uses (or should use) a clock.

This might be the same product or system you analyzed for Exercise 1.8. Conduct a security review of that product or system as described in Section 1.12,

this time focusing on the security and privacy issues surrounding the clock.



CHAPTER



17

Key Servers



At last we turn to key management. This is, without a doubt, the most difficult

issue in cryptographic systems, which is why we left it to near the end. We’ve

discussed how to encrypt and authenticate data, and how to negotiate a shared

secret key between two participants. Now we need to find a way for Alice

and Bob to recognize each other over the Internet. As you will see, this gets

very complex very quickly. Key management is especially difficult because

it involves people instead of mathematics, and people are much harder to

understand and predict. Key management is in many ways a capstone to all

we have discussed so far. Much of the benefit of cryptography is defeated if

key management is done poorly.

Before we start, let us make one thing clear. We talk only about the

cryptographic aspects of key management, not the organizational aspects. The

organizational aspects include things like a policy covering whom to issue keys

to, which keys get access to which resources, how to verify the identity of the

people who get keys, policies on the security of the stored keys, mechanisms

for verifying that these policies are being adhered to, etc. Every organization

will implement these differently, depending on their requirements and their

existing organizational infrastructure. We focus only on parts that directly

affect the cryptographic system.

One way to handle key management is to have a trusted entity to hand out

all the keys. We’ll call this entity the key server.



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17.1







Key Management



Basics



The basic idea is simple. We assume that everybody sets up a shared secret

key with the key server. For example, Alice sets up a key KA that is known

only to her and to the key server. Bob sets up a key KB that is known only to

him and to the key server. Other parties set up keys in the same fashion.

Now suppose Alice wants to communicate with Bob. She has no key she can

use to communicate with Bob, but she can communicate securely with the key

server. The key server, in turn, can communicate securely with Bob. We could

simply send all the traffic to the key server and let the key server act as a giant

post office. But that is a bit hard on the key server, as it would have to handle

enormous amounts of traffic. A better solution is to let the key server set up a

key KAB that is shared by Alice and Bob.



17.2



Kerberos



This is the basic idea behind Kerberos, a widely used key management system

[79]. Kerberos is based on the Needham-Schroeder protocol [102].

At a very basic level, here is how it works. When Alice wants to talk to Bob,

she first contacts the key server. The key server sends Alice a new secret key

KAB plus the key KAB encrypted with Bob’s key KB . Both these messages are

encrypted with KA , so only Alice can read them. Alice sends the message that

is encrypted with Bob’s key, called the ticket, to Bob. Bob decrypts it and gets

KAB , which is now a session key known only to Alice and Bob—and to the key

server, of course.

One of the features of Kerberos is that the key server, called the KDC in

Kerberos terminology, does not have to update its state very often. Of course,

the key server has to remember the key that it shares with each user. But when

Alice asks the KDC to set up a key between her and Bob, the KDC performs

the function and then forgets all about it. It does not keep track of which keys

between users have been set up. This is a nice property because it allows a

heavily loaded key server to be distributed over several machines in a simple

manner. As there is no state to be updated, Alice can talk to one copy of the

key server one moment and to another copy the next moment.

It turns out that the cryptographic protocols needed for a Kerberos-style

system are very complicated. Initially, designing such protocols looks quite

easy to do, but even experienced cryptographers have published proposals,

only to have them broken later on. The flaws that creep in are very subtle.

We’re not going to explain these protocols here; they are too dangerous to



Chapter 17







Key Servers



experiment with and modify by hand. Even we shy away from designing this

type of protocol anew. If you want to use a protocol of this sort, use the latest

version of Kerberos. Kerberos has been around for quite a while, and many

competent people have looked at it.



17.3



Simpler Solutions



Sometimes it is not possible to use Kerberos. The protocol is far from simple,

and it imposes some restrictions. Servers have to memorize all tickets that they

have accepted, and every participant needs a reliable clock. There are several

situations in which these requirements cannot be met. Further, we find it more

informative to study a simpler design.

We can create a simpler and more robust solution if we don’t put so much

emphasis on efficiency. It turns out to be especially useful to allow the key

server to maintain state. Modern computers are far more powerful than they

were in the days when Kerberos was first designed, and they should not have

any trouble maintaining state for tens of thousands of participants. Even a very

large system with 100,000 participants is not a problem: if each participant

requires a 1 kilobyte state in the key server, storing all states requires only 100

megabytes of memory. The key server still needs to be fast enough to set up

all the requested keys, but that too is much less of a problem with modern,

fast computers.

We will only discuss the situation in which there is a single key server.

There are techniques that you can use to distribute the key server state over

several computers, but we won’t go into the details, because you really don’t

want to have a key server for tens of thousands of participants; it’s too risky.

The danger of large key servers is that all the keys are in a single place. That

makes the key server a very attractive target for attack. The key server must

also be online at all times, which means an attacker can always communicate

with the key server at will. The current state of the art does not protect

computers from network attacks very well, and putting all your keys in a

single place is an invitation to disaster. For smaller systems, the total ‘‘value’’

of the keys kept by the key server is smaller, so this threat is reduced.1 In

the next few chapters we will explore a solution to the key management

system that is better suited to very large systems. We will restrict our discussion of key servers to fairly small systems—up to a few thousand participants or so.

1 We



don’t like to leave any unaddressed threat in the system, but in key management, you

always end up with a compromise solution.



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17.3.1 Secure Connection

Here is a brief description of a simpler solution. First, we assume that Alice

and the key server share a key KA . Instead of using this key directly, they use

it to run a key negotiation protocol, like the ones we discussed in Chapter 14.

(If KA is a password, you’d really prefer to use one of the protocols suitable

for low-entropy passwords that we discussed in Section 14.12, assuming the

patent issues are not a problem for you.) The key negotiation protocol sets up

a fresh key KA between the key server and Alice. All other participants also

perform the same protocol with the key server, and they all set up fresh keys.

Alice and the key server use KA to create a secure communication channel (see

Chapter 7 for details). Using the secure channel, Alice and the key server can

communicate securely. Confidentiality, authentication, and replay protection

are all provided by the secure channel. All further communications happen

over this secure channel. All other participants create a similar secure channel

with the key server.



17.3.2 Setting Up a Key

It is now much easier to design a protocol that sets up a key between Alice

and Bob. We only need to consider the case where messages get lost, delayed,

or deleted by the attacker, because the secure channel protects us from all

other types of manipulation. The protocol can now be something fairly simple.

Alice asks the key server to set up a key between her and Bob. The key server

responds by sending a new key KAB to both Alice and Bob. The key server

can even send the message to Bob through Alice, so that it does not need to

communicate with Bob directly. If this happens, Alice simply becomes the

equivalent of a network router transiting a secure channel between the key

server and Bob.

This does pose one limitation on the system: Bob must run the key negotiation protocol with the key server before Alice asks the key server to set up a

shared key with Bob. Whether this turns out to be a problem depends on the

exact circumstances, as do the possible solutions to this limitation.



17.3.3 Rekeying

Like all keys, the KA key must have a limited lifetime. This is easy to arrange,

as Alice can always rerun the key negotiation protocol (using the original key

KA for authentication) to set up a fresh KA key. A key lifetime of a few hours

seems reasonable for most situations.

Because we can always rekey, the key server does not have to store the secure

channel state in a reliable manner. Suppose the key server crashes and loses



Chapter 17







Key Servers



all state information. As long as it remembers KA (and the corresponding keys

for the other participants), there is no problem. All we have to do to recover is

run the key negotiation protocol between the key server and every participant

again. So although the key server is not stateless, it does not have to modify its

long-term state—the part that is stored on nonvolatile media—when running

the protocols.



17.3.4 Other Properties

Perhaps our solution is not simpler than Kerberos from an implementation

point of view, but it is simpler from a conceptual point of view. The secure

channel makes it much easier to oversee the possible lines of attack against

the protocol. Using the key negotiation protocol and the secure channel we

already designed is a good example of how modularization can help in the

design of cryptographic protocols.

Using the key negotiation protocol to set up the secure channel has another

advantage: we get forward secrecy. If Alice’s key KA is compromised today,

her old secure channel keys KA are not revealed, and therefore all her old

communications are still secure.

In the earlier parts of the book, we gave a detailed example design of the

cryptographic function we discussed. We won’t do that here, nor will we for

the rest of the book. The cryptography is fairly straightforward, and we could

certainly have described a key server system, but it would not be very useful.

Designing key management systems is more a problem of collecting a suitable

set of requirements for the particular application and getting the user interface

right than a problem of cryptography. To be able to explain the design choices

for a concrete example here, we would have to invent and document the entire

surrounding social and organizational structure, the threat environment, and

the application that needs the key management.



17.4



What to Choose



If you want to implement a central key server, you should use Kerberos if

possible. It is widely available and widely used.

In those situations where Kerberos is not suitable, you will have to design

and build something like the solution we described, but that will be a major

operation. For the most common type of cryptographic applications we have

seen, you should count on spending as much time on the key server system as

you did on the entire application. Our discussion here should help guide your

thinking.



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17.5







Key Management



Exercises



Exercise 17.1 For the protocol in Section 17.3, what is a reasonable lifetime

to use for the keys KA ? Why? What bad things could happen if the lifetime is

longer? What bad things could happen if the lifetime is shorter?

Exercise 17.2 For the protocol in Section 17.3, how might an attacker be able

to learn KA before it times out? What bad things would the attacker be able to

do with that knowledge? What bad things would the attacker not be able to

do with that knowledge?

Exercise 17.3 For the protocol in Section 17.3, how might an attacker be able

to learn KA after it times out? What bad things would the attacker be able to do

with that knowledge? What bad things would the attacker not be able to do

with that knowledge?

Exercise 17.4 For the protocol in Section 17.3, consider an attacker who intercepts all communications. Can the attacker retroactively read data between

Alice and Bob if KA and KB are both later exposed?

Exercise 17.5 For the protocol in Section 17.3, could an attacker gain any

advantage in breaking the protocol by forcibly rebooting the key server?

Exercise 17.6 For the protocol in Section 17.3, could an attacker mount a

denial-of-service attack against two parties wishing to communicate, and if so,

how?

Exercise 17.7 For the protocol in Section 17.3, are there policy or legal risks

with having the key server generate KAB ? Are there things Alice and Bob would

not say in a situation where the key server generates KAB that they would say

if the key were known only to them?



CHAPTER



18

The Dream of PKI



In this chapter we will give the standard presentation of what a PKI is, and

how it solves the key management problem. It is important to understand

this first. In the next chapter we’ll talk about the challenges with PKIs in

practice, but for this chapter we’ll visit the perfect world where a PKI solves

all your problems.



18.1



A Very Short PKI Overview



A PKI is a Public-Key Infrastructure. It is an infrastructure that allows you to

recognize which public key belongs to whom. The classical description is as

follows.

There is a central authority that is called the Certificate Authority, or CA

for short. The CA has a public/private key pair (e.g., an RSA key pair) and

publishes the public key. We will assume that everybody knows the CA’s

public key. As this key remains the same over long periods of time, this is easy

to accomplish.

To join the PKI, Alice generates her own public/private key pair. She keeps

the private key secret, and takes the public key PKA to the CA and says: ‘‘Hi,

I’m Alice and PKA is my public key.’’ The CA verifies that Alice is who she

says she is and then signs a digital statement that states something like ‘‘Key

PKA belongs to Alice.’’ This signed statement is called the certificate. It certifies

that the key belongs to Alice.

If Alice now wants to communicate with Bob, she can send him her public

key and the certificate. Bob has the CA’s public key, so he can verify the

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