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2 Oxides with a layered structure (layered oxides, LiMO2; M = Co, Ni, Mn, Al)

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18



S. Leuthner



As shown in Fig. 2.4, mechanical tensions might arise within the active material

particles. They form cracks within the particles and their pulverization. As a result,

individual active material particles are no longer electrically connected. This type

of stress and its effects are detailed in [5].

Another aging process is the result of the expansion of the active materials

by mechanical strain during the intercalation of the lithium ions and it leads to a

change in particle volume. As shown in Fig. 2.5, this might cause the separation of



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Fig. 2.4  Aging processes in the active material of the positive electrode during cycling [7]

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Fig. 2.5  Aging processes in the active material of the positive electrode during cycling. Sep­

aration of electrical conduction paths [7]



2  Lithium-ion battery overview19



the electrical conduction paths (Specific electrical conduction paths are supplied

between the particles and the current collector. This is done by means of carbon

black, a special carbon conductor.) This entails that the active material particles are

no longer electrically connected to the current collectors.

This aging process can become manifest at both the positive and the negative

electrodes. Further aging processes are discussed in detail in [6]. The lifetime of

the battery cells depends on the operating conditions, the materials applied, the

electrolyte composition, and the quality of the production process. It differs in relation to the application, the design of the lithium-ion battery cell, and the operating

conditions.



Bibliography

1. Ozawa K (2009) Lithium ion rechargeable batteries – materials, technology, and new applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany

2. Garche J (2009) Encyclopedia of electrochemical power sources, Vol. 6. Elsevier B. V.

3. Robert Bosch Battery Systems GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany

4. Reitzle A, Fetzer J, Fink H, Kern R (2011) Safety of lithium-ion batteries for automotive applications. AABC Europe, Mainz, Germany

5. Aifantis KE, Hackney SA, Kumar RV (2010) High energy density lithium batteries. WileyVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany

6. Garche J (2009) Encyclopedia of electrochemical power sources. Secondary batteries – lithium

rechargeable systems – lithium-ion: aging mechanisms, Vol. 5. Elsevier B. V.

7. Leuthner S, Kern R, Fetzer J, Klausner M (2011) Influence of automotive requirements on test

methods for lithium-ion batteries. Battery testing for electric mobility, Berlin, Germany



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