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Figure 17.3 - Ten Questions for Evaluating Public Relations Plans

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Types of Target Audiences

Internal audiences



External audiences



• People who are connected

to a firm with whom the firm

communicates on a routine

basis

• Employees

• Stockholders

• Investors

• Members of the local

community

• Suppliers

• Current customers



• People who are not closely

connected with the

organization

• Media

• Educators

• Civic and business

organizations

• Governments

• Financial groups



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9



Tools for Implementing the PR 

Program



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10



Advantages and Disadvantages of PR

Advantages

 Credibility

 Cost

 Avoidance of clutter

 Lead generation

 Ability to reach specific 

groups

 Image building



Disadvantages

 Potential for incomplete 

communication process

 Lack of connection between 

receiver and sender 

 Lack of coordination with 

marketing unit

 Erratic, redundant 

communications



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11



Measuring the Effectiveness of PR

 Should consider whether the target audience:

 Received the messages

 Paid attention to the messages

 Understood the messages

 Retained the messages



 Methods 

 Media content analysis

 Survey research

 Marketing­mix modeling

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Publicity 

 Generation of news about a person, product, or 

service that appears in broadcast or print media

 Differs from public relations by:

 Being a short­term strategy

 Not always being positive

 Not always being controlled or paid by the 

organization



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Video News Release (VNR)

 Publicity piece produced by publicists so that 

stations can air it as a news story

 Used by marketers to have control over the time 

and place where information is released



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Pros and Cons of Publicity

Pros



Cons



 Substantial credibility



 Lack of control



 News value



 Timing



 Significant word­of­mouth



 Accuracy



 Perception of media 

endorsement



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15



Corporate Advertising

 Designed to promote the firm overall by: 

 Enhancing its image 

 Assuming a position on a social cause 

 Seeking direct involvement in something



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16



Reasons for Corporate Advertising 

Being Controversial

Consumers are not interested

Costly form of self-indulgence

Belief that the firm must be in

trouble

Perceived as a waste of money

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Types of Corporate Advertising



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 Methods for Measuring the 

Effectiveness of Corporate Advertising

Attitude surveys



Studies relating corporate advertising and stock

prices



Focus group research



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